2.1 Celebrity Endorsement 2.1.1 Celebrity Endorsement and the Selection of Celebrity Endorser Celebrity endorsement is a common and widely-used marketing strategy to promote brand awareness, brand recognition, and product sales by using celebrities with well-known reputation and influence (McCracken, 1989). The use of celebrities in marketing campaigns already has a long history and is not a recent phenomenon (Kaikati, 1987). Celebrity endorsements can be traced back to the late nineteenth century. A typical example was the involvement of Queen Victoria with Cadbury's Cocoa (Sherman, 1985). In the past decade, the use of celebrities has rapidly increased (Runyan et al., 2009).
This puts down that an organization must be consistent and have a long term commitment with the celebrities. (Chetty, 2014) In other study carried out by Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) showed the relation of celebrity, company with the consumers. It expressed how consumers have a strong connection towards a celebrity endorser so if a company wants consumers to relate to their product it is important to pick an endorser who uses the product and that usage is a reflection of professional expertise. (Daneshvary and Schwer,
In today’s world countless new products are emerging into markets, their advertisements are cluttering the media channels and the availability of variety of brands causes a consumer’s attention to become divided where they are often left confused as to which brand to opt for. Marketers, in this situation, use celebrity endorsement as a tool to cut through all the media clutter and manage to grasp the attention of their target consumer, triumphantly. A celebrity endorser has a profound impact on the consumers and celebrity endorsement has been undertaken by many scholars and researchers due to the importance it holds in the advertising world. The celebrity endorsement market is known to be a multi-billion dollar industry, worldwide (Crutchfield,
Till and Michael Busler (Autumn, 2000) Physical attractiveness Positive association with Purchase intention Hovland and Weiss (1951) Familiarity, Likeability and Similarity of celebrity Positive perception of ad, celebrity and brand when celebrity is familiar and likeable McGuire (1985) Expertise, Trustworthiness of celebrity Positive perception of ad, celebrity and brand when expertise and trustworthiness high Goldsmit et al. (2000). Endoser credibility Endoser credibility has a direct relationship with Purchase intention which possesses a consumer affective towards ad which forms positive purchase intention McCracken 1986) Process of transfer of meaning from celebrity to product and to consumer The higher the perceived match between symbolic properties of the product and celebrities meanings drawn from his/her assumed roles, the higher the likelihood of consumer‘s consumption and appropriation of product‘s
They believe that by doing this they can associate their products with their customers. This is called Celebrity endorsement. The practice of using celebrities in an Advertisement to promote products goes way back to more than a hundred years and continues till date. Some studies have found that 25% of the total advertisements aired use celebrity endorsement. This scenario is not too different in India.
Celebrities are further said to enjoy a high degree of public awareness and they generally differ from the social norm in a corresponding social group. Attributes like special skills, attractiveness and extraordinary lifestyle are examples and specific common characteristics that are recognized”. Others have defined celebrity endorsement as any individual with public recognition who uses this recognition for a product by appearing in an advertisement for it (McCracken, 1989). Celebrities in this modern day and age may also be an animated character like Fred Flintstone, or an animal (Miciak & Shanklin, 1994). Celebrities show up in public in various ways.
Applications: The applications deal with the “Halo effect”. This effect occurs when the public sees celebrities use the products, they are more inclined to buy the product because they want to mimic their role model. A celebrity is a person who is known by his well knownness. McCracken has defined a celebrity endorser as a person who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a brand to endorse the brand. Thus associating a public figure with a brand, employs rhetorical teachings to implicate the ethos appeal thereby associating a sense of credibility and trustworthiness with the brand.
Secondary objectives: • To study the perception of the consumer of celebrity’s personality on the image of brand and how that image is created with the help of an endorser. • To understand how the different types of endorsers can have different effects, and the way their life events affect the perception of the brand in a consumer’s minds. • Lastly, to know how celebrity endorsed ads are perceived differently from other advertisements. Research question: 1. What is the Impact of celebrity endorsement on brand
Our words define our nature and our nature defines our personality” a single wrong word may hurt the person’s emotion so need to have a full command on our tongue. The way person behave shows the person’s etiquette, attitude and personality. These are the two main things in celebrity life and a one mistake may spoil all his/her reputation in front of their followers. Celebrity PR PLAN plays a vital role in celebrity’s life. Celebrity PR works as a behaviour controller in professional life, while interacting with the media persons or followers celebrity need to behave very polite with friendly attitude.
Celebrity endorsement has been vastly used as marketing tactics in different type of products and brands, and with a distinguished history (Seno and Lukas, 2007). Companies of the over-the-counter (OTC) health care products always uses celebrity to endorse their products (Cho, 2010), because the company believe the celebrity endorsement would be effective in creating the awareness of their product (Cho, 2010). The consumer may willing to try the product without much hesitation if the endorser is convincing enough (Cho, 2010). And that is why the use of celebrity endorsement is that paramount to players in OTC health care industry. Many Hong Kong people became more health conscious after the outbreak of SARS in 2003 (Cho, 2010).