Heart attacks kill five times more than breast cancer among women. People are at the risk of heart attacks because of smoking, unhealthy diet, obesity, high blood pressure/cholesterol/ blood sugar, and lack of physical routine/activity (“What is a Heart Attack”). People with metabolic syndrome (high blood pressure/sugar and obesity) are twice as likely to develop heart disease and five
1. INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in renal failure patients. The morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease is high and the presence of chronic kidney disease worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease often begins before end-stage renal disease and patients with reduced kidney function are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than to develop end-stage renal disease. 40-50% of all deaths in the end-stage renal disease population are of cardiovascular origin .
In case of heart attacks and anaphylactic reactions, most mistakes occur under emergency conditions by reading the prescribed concentrations incorrectly from the labels. Furthermore, accidental overdoses can be also the outcome due to poor miscommunication between the team of health care professionals. Lack of awareness or education can lead to overdosing the medication by miscalculation. Cost consequences to insurances company: Medical errors include 2.4 million extra hospital days, increasing the costs of approximately $ 17-29 billion per year. Medical errors can occur in
Lens Transplants for Cataracts Introduction: Cataracts is a very common eye disease worldwide. Cataracts form when there is a buildup of protein in the lens, and when they are not treated in time, it may lead to blindness. This disease often develops at an old age, as the lens ages, if you have high myopia, long exposure to sunlight, diseases like diabetes or can sometimes be a genetic defect, which means you can get it at birth etc. In Hong Kong, more than 50,000 patients are on waiting lists for cataract operations at Hospital Authority hospitals alone, which the average time for waiting can last up to two to five years. Over 40,000 of them are aged over 71 years old.
Antibiotics are used for treatment, however it depends on the causative agent. Surgery, dialysis, or nephrectomy may be considered for Chronic pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis: The systemic symptoms are fever, chills, back pain, and nausea and vomiting. The need to urinate along with burning and pain, including the smell and the color of the individual are symptoms. In chronic pyelonephritis, the symptoms are as follows: anemia, weakness, hypertension, and loss of appetite.
The diastolic dysfunction will eventually lead to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary edema or congestion happens when the left ventricle of the heart fails. This is simply because the inefficiency of its ventricle to pump effectively causes the blood to back up to the pulmonary capillaries as the pulmonary venous blood rises its pressure into the tissues and alveoli impairing the gas exchange. Pulmonary congestion will be manifested in crackles, difficulty of breathing, frothy pink-tinged sputum and shortness of breath. In addition, the decreased amount of blood ejected from the left side causes ineffective tissue perfusion.
Small breaks in the epidermis become infected and the sensitive subcutaneous layer and deeper tissues are damaged. Eventually, the tissue dies. Pressure ulcers occur most often in disabled patients. With appropriate care, pressure ulcers are avoidable, but they can progress very quickly in patients who are very old or very ill.” (Tortora, 2011) “Pressure ulcer disease signifies a serious medical problem. Roughly, 500,000 new cases are reported each year in the United States alone.
An estimate of just four doctors are available to about 10,000 inhabitants in any given region. Highly-trained experts often leave the country in order to pursue their profession in countries with better infrastructure or higher wages. As a result, patients suffer from neglect, especially at the public hospitals or clinics in Nigeria, and the morbidity and mortality of non-communicable diseases keep increasing. It sickens me to know that people still die from common preventable illnesses such as Malaria disease and Typhoid infection. This is a result of poor policy, negligence, and short-sightedness.
The CVA can be a hemorrhage or thrombus and the severity of the lesion determines the loss of function. In extensive disease, neighboring neurons may also be affected. Following a stroke, the oxygen supply to brain cells is blocked and cells start to die within minutes. This will be reflected by symptoms like sudden weakness, paralysis or numbness of the face, arms, or legs, difficulty in communication, loss of consciousness etc. The loss of function in stroke is dependent on the number of neurons involved and how long the blood flow to the brain has been interrupted.
Shortage of Organ Donation “In India, every year nearly 500,000 people die because of non-availability of organs” (Poreddi, 2016). Health is the most important element that can support people to be more energy to complete their life positively with high ambition. Recently, physicians have discovered many deadly diseases that have spread sharply among people such as cancer, kidney failure, heart diseases and diabetes. In the same time, many medical solutions have been discovered for these diseases. One of these solutions that can help people to overcome the disease is organ donation.