Chronic Kidney Disease Research Paper

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Increase the Awareness of Chronic Kidney Disease
What is Chronic Kidney Disease?
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive loss in kidney function. Every kidney has about a million tiny filters, which are nephrons. At the initial stage, healthy nephrons will take on the extra work when some nephrons are damaged. But if the damage continues, more and more nephrons shut down and even stop filtering blood effectively so that patients’ health will be affected. To be worse, kidney function falls below a certain point, which is kidney failure. Kidney failure, which can be life-threatening, has a more significant influence on the patient. CKD might lead to complications including high blood pressure, anemia, and heart and blood vessel disease.
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ESRD means regular dialysis treatment or a kidney transplant will be limited options for patients in order to survive. The second consequence of CKD is that it increases the risk of premature death from associated cardiovascular disease (i.e. heart attacks and strokes). Individuals who appear to be healthy who are then found to have CKD have an increased risk of dying prematurely from cardiovascular disease regardless of whether they ever develop kidney failure.
Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease
About 1 in 10 people have some degree of chronic kidney disease, and millions of patients die prematurely of kidney-related complications. While kidney diseases can affect people of all ages and races, communities which have high rates of diabetes and high blood pressure have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. In Hong Kong in particular, Chronic kidney disease is listed the No. 7 leading cause of death.
However, there is a lack of awareness and knowledge of chronic kidney diseases among the whole world. In Hong Kong, the knowledge gaps in risk factors of kidney disease are huge. Risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, high dietary sodium of kidney disease are seldom aware among the general
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CKD can be inherited or the result of longstanding blockage to the urinary system. Drugs can cause CKD as well; for example side-effects of some pain-killing drugs (analgesics). 5
While kidney disease at early stages may be asymptomatic, symptoms of kidney disease could include puffy eyelids, high blood pressure, loin pain, blood in urine/tea color urine, frothy urine, cloudy urine, discomfort/pain when passing urine, difficulty in passing urine, passing urine frequently (at night), passing stone/sand with urine and swollen ankles. If CKD develops to kidney failure, patients might suffer from poor appetite, tiredness, anaemia, shortness of breath and even coma.
Unhealthy diet is also considered a key factor of chronic kidney disease. According to the report from the Hong Kong Department of Health, about two-fifths (39.2%) of people aged 18 – 64 were overweight/obese; about four-fifths (80.3%) failed to meet the World Health Organization (WHO)’s recommendation of having at least five servings of fruit and vegetables per day; and about one-fourteenth (7.2%) of the respondents had binge

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