Cummins (2005) states that instruction should be done only using target language, and translation between the two languages should not be allowed. On the one hand, many researchers like Zentella (1981), Shin (2005), Setati, Adler, Reed and Bapoo (2002) state the negative effects of the usage of two languages in the classroom. While on the other hand, researchers like Lin (2005), Martin (2005) and Arthur & Martin (2006) bring different arguments to state the useful character of bilingual classrooms such as better learning process, safe practice for the students, participation, etc. Different researchers give different explanations to the term “bilingualism”. Baker (2003), for instance, describes it with diglossia stating that each language has different social functions.
Introduction of LINQ (Language Integrated Query) Based on the research conducted, the term LINQ is an acronyms that stand for Language Integrated Query. LINQ is tool that mainly used for querying data in the ASP.NET by defining a common programming syntax to query different type of data through using a common language. LINQ syntax is divided into 2 type of syntax which is Lambda (Method) Syntax and Query (Comprehension) Syntax. However, both syntax also involve the use of extension method. Moreover, LINQ can be used to extract data from various data sources such as LINQ to Objects, XML, SQL and etc.
Definition: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to language teaching which supports the development of learners' abilities to use language fluently and meaningfully. The main function of CLT is teaching communicative competence (Richards, 2005). According to Richards (2005), communicative competence means using language for different purposes and functions, modifying language use according to settings and participants, producing and understanding different text types and continuing communication with limitations in language. Principles of CLT: There are many principles of CLT that basically focus on communication. Richards (2005) indicated that the principles of CLT are: language learning focus on real communication, learners
Community Language Learning methods takes it is principle from the more general Counseling-Learning approach developed by Charles A Curran studied adult learning for many years. Curran believed that a way to deal with the fears of students is for teacher to become language counselors. It is language teaching method in which students work together to develop what aspect of a language which they would like to learn. Also based on counseling-approach in which teacher acts as a counselor and a paraphraser, while the learner is seen as client and collaborator. So we can think like teacher as a consular, students as a client, learning as counseling.
Febby (2011) also define CTL as a concept of learning that help teachers link between materials taught with real world situations to students and encourage students to make connection between the knowledge possessed by its application in their lives as family members and the community. Situated
Introduction As the world grows closer, the need for proficient English communication has resulted in an enormous demand for English teaching worldwide. Consequently, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) emerged circa the 1970s and has then gradually become one of the most popular language teaching approaches that are widely used in a range of different institutions. In some countries, English was made the obligatory second language that any students have to learn besides other core subjects. Employers and employees alike are also required to master the language to some extent of proficiency, which nowadays has been regarded the requisite for career or business advancement in many fields. Since its introduction, CLT has been playing an essential
A bilingual approach to education entails that academic content is taught in two languages, a native language and a second language. The two main ways that bilingual education is brought about is either by choice or necessity. The distinguishing factor is that those who are involved in bilingual education by choice are participating in “enrichment programs” (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 17), which can be called elite bilingualism. Immigrant populations and ethnic minorities are those who are involved based on necessity where “the bilingual provision is frequently temporary, often inadequate and usually stigmatized as marginal.” (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 17) This is an important distinction to make when discussing bilingual education and its successes and
(2001) argued that IL needs are to be integrated in the course. Similarly, Hiscock and Marriott (2003) concluded in their study that integrating IL and lifelong learning skills into the curriculum is a powerful way of encouraging the students to develop these skills. According to Yang (2009), one major recent trend is the move to online delivery of IL education, especially through course management systems or virtual learning environments. Another is the shift of focus towards more strategic approaches, aiming to move the debate to the level of the institution as a whole (Bruce, 2002; Johnston and Webber, 2003). The study of Corrall (2007) had it that IL teaching is embedded within 75 per cent of the undergraduate and postgraduate taught course curricula and the aim is to achieve 100 per cent integration in UK
CLIL assessment will focus both linguistic and academic competences in integrated forms of authentic assessment (Järvinen, 2009). Authentic assessment happens when the checking process is associated to types of work that real people do, rather than merely soliciting answers which only require simple, easy-to-assess responses as in traditional teacher-centered education (Wiggings, 1998; in Järvinen, 2009). Alternative assessment from Wewer’s (2014) point of view, generates less anxiety, is more equal and is multiculturally conscious. It also provides information to students about their strengths and weaknesses, giving them the base to improve their learning. On the other hand, it requires new learning environments and a new role for the teacher.
The communicative learning technique (CLT) Language is communication; we use it to express our feelings, needs, and thoughts, and in order to express ourselves using a certain language, we need to know its functions and how to use it effectively, and that is what the CLT is all about. Communicative language teaching created a great deal of enthusiasm and excitement when it first appeared as a new approach to language teaching in the 1970s and 1980s (Richards, 2006), it was created for the need of using the language communicatively. At variance of the Audio- Lingual Approach, which depends entirely on listening and repetition and giving a great care to grammar, regardless of the importance of the meaning of the context , the CLT, which is a methods that developed by Charles A. Curran and his associates, emphasis on learning to communicate and interact using the target language, use the language in a context that serves conversations different situations, Students are more responsible managers of their own learning and because of the increased responsibility to participate, students may find they gain confidence in using the target language in general. (Larsen-Freeman, 1986). Harmer (2007:51) purposed, when thinking about an English lesson it is useful therefore to keep the following three elements in mind,