Antimicrobial Activity of Three Medicinal Plant Extracts from Duba Province Tabuk, Saudi Arabia on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria
Abstract: Three seed extracts of coffee (Coffea arabica), black cumin (Nigella sativa), and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) plants were purchased from local market in Duba province, west Saudi Arabia were assayed for the in vitro antibacterial activity against three human pathogenic bacteria viz Klebsiella pneumoniae, Psuedomonas sp, and Escherichia coli using hole plate diffusion method. The result revealed that some ethanolic and hot water extracts had shown antibacterial activities against the three bacterial strains under investigation.
Key words: plant extracts, coffee, black cumin, date palm, bacteria.
In recent times, there have been increases in antibiotic resistant strains of clinically important pathogens, which have led to the emergence of new …show more content…
They were purchased from a local market in Duba province, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. The plant seeds were brought to the laboratory and thoroughly washed in distilled water and dried in shade in room temperature then stored in a plastic zip bag in 4°C until use.
Plant Extracts Preparation:
Plant seeds were finely grinded to powder by using a blender. A total of 20 g from each plant seed powder were weighted in beakers and mixed with 5 ml 95% ethanol for 5 minutes for surface sterilization and left for 10 minutes under Hood to evaporate the traces of alcohol.
Preparation of hot water extracts: 20 g from each bark powder was surface sterilized and mixed with 100 ml sterilized water and placed in water path for 90 minutes at 100ºC, and then filtered through 3 layers of sterilized cheese cloth. The products were kept in a refrigerator at 4 ºC until needed for testing their bacterial
aureus microbe problematic is because it is the leading cause of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections by gram-positive bacteria and is notoriously resistant to penicillin and many other commonly used antibiotics. It was actually recently reported that a strain of S. aureus is resistant to every known antibiotic in clinical usage. The emergence of antibiotic resistance strains of S. aureus, such as methicillin resistant staph aureus (MRSA), is becoming a greater problem. Since S. aureus has become resistant to most of the beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is used to fight MRSA. However, there are now strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin, such as vancomycin intermediate staph aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant staph aureus (VRSA).
In the laboratory, identification of an unknown bacterium is often necessary. In the lab, a random sample consisting of three different bacteria was selected. The sample contained one gram-positive, one gram-negative paracolon, and one gram-negative coliform. The purpose of the experiment is to identify each of the three species that the mixture contained. After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates.
In the 1920s, Griffith began an experiment that consisted of using two types of pneumonia causing bacteria, smooth and rough. The smooth bacteria that the experiment used had a capsule, while the rough lacked one. Griffith injected the types bacteria into the mice to determine the impact they had. When the mice were injected with live rough bacteria, they lived, and when the mice were injected with live smooth bacteria, they died. Griffith at this point had concluded that the capsule was the cause of death of these mice and he decided to conduct two more experiments.
They were tested for their ability to screen for Salmonella contamination in the selective enrichment step. Collectively, the broth formulations with different amino acid substrates and selective inhibitors not only identified decarboxylase-positive bacteria, but further distinguished between decarboxylase-positive salmonellae and
Indirect infection transmission is caused when there is no physical contact between humans. Indirect infection is generally spread when someone sneezes or coughs, causing the disease to become airborne. Another way indirect transmission can occur is when a surface becomes contaminated such as a change table or a toy. This is why it's important to ensure your centre is effective in environmental cleaning. The third way an indirect infection can occur is through contact with animals such as mosquitos, rats, mice, dogs, fleas, ticks etc.
The purpose of this lab report is to employ a myriad of skills, tools and, methods learned throughout this semester to perform the appropriate tests for the identification of the assigned unknown bacteria. Add more background information here!!! The most important tools and techniques used during this identification include aseptic technique, microscopic examination and, the use of selective and differential media. Aseptic technique is an important tool for microbiologists. It is imperative that aseptic technique is maintained throughout the length of any test to avoid any cross-contamination that may lead to inaccurate results.
In Hindu religious mythology the tree is adored as the Earth Mother as its natural product is thought to be so feeding as to be the medical attendant of humankind (Onions,1994). In India, it is regular to eat gooseberries saturated with salt water and turmeric to make the harsh natural products satisfactory. There are two assortments of Amla - developed (gramya) and wild (vanya). The wild amla is little, while developed amla is huge, smooth and succulent. Synthetic creation of the amla natural product contains over 80% of water.
The tube was placed back in incubation for 96 more hours to observe any more positives. 2.10 Catalase Test A trypticase soy agar plate was used and after incubation, four drops of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide was added to the plate to flow over the bacterial growth. A presence of bubbling was observed. 2.11 Starch Hydrolysis
Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen.
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a bacteria resistant to all antibiotics containing penicillin. MRSA otherwise known as a superbug has been produced through the process of natural selection inside hospitals, which provide the perfect environment for this bacteria to thrive in. Bacteria like MRSA are hard to treat as there are fewer antibiotics to treat it therefore increasing its deadliness. The antimicrobial resistance in MRSA is genetically based, meaning that it can spread its immunity amongst other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. MRSA is a bacteria that can withstand antibiotics containing penicillins.
et al. 2017). Since the first uses of penicillin, there have been numerous cases of resistance towards the antibiotic penicillin. The bacteria associated with penicillin, has originated from rare and naturally resistant varieties that had prevented the killing of the bacteria and as a result, making the drug ineffective. The resistance towards penicillin was due to the high number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria present which had a greater chance of survival over the bacteria that was not resistant, therefore being preserved and eventually causing a mutation in the bacteria not already resistant to penicillin (De
Although antibiotics are basically current against bacteria, compound increase is locked in a co-evolutionary battle with natural bacterial compounds, involuntarily promotion the improvement of resistance. Bacteria have found a host of mechanisms to circumvent antibiotic killing and transmit resistance, that until recently were thought to impose a significant burden on overall evolutionary fitness, allowing susceptible organisms to ultimately outcompete their resistant counterparts. Mostly, these mechanisms can be gathered as either innate resistance or, of more concern to modern clinical and agriculture practice, acquired
The Legionellaceae are thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, Gram-negative opportunistic intracellular bacteria. They are non-capsulated rod-like bacterium of approximately 2 μm in length and 0.3-0.9 μm in width. Legionella pneumophila has suggested fastidious nutrient requirements, including ferric iron and L-cysteine. The family Legionellaceae consists of a single genus, Legionella. This genus includes the species Legionella pneumophila, the most frequent cause of human legionellosis and it known as Legionnaires’ disease.
Microorganisms such as bacteria import nutrient materials that are needed for their growth and survival from the environment as well as exporting metabolites. As the cytoplasm of microbes is separated from the environment by the hydrophobic plasma membrane which is impermeable to hydrophilic solutes, most of the hydrophilic compounds can only pass through the plasma membrane by means of integral membrane proteins which include carrier proteins, permeases or transporters due to the permeability barrier exerted by the phospholipid components of plasma membrane. Movement of solutes in and out of bacteria can be classified by the following processes: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, group translocation, endocytosis and exocytosis. As related to active transport and group translocation, energy is invested in active transport