Solvent Essays

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    contaminated with relatively small amounts of impurities using recrystallization. The success of recrystallization was dependent on a suitable solvent being chosen and proper recrystallization technique being carried out. The solvent chosen had to have a different polarity than that of the molecule of interest. The technique used was dependent on the solubility of the solvent at higher temperature and the solubility of the impurities at all temperatures. To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H

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    Essential Oil Lab Report

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    methods such as steam and solvent extraction. Essential oils have been produced and used for different purposes for many centuries. There are signs that crude preparations

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    suitable size to accommodate the glass plates and capillary, ultraviolet light source emitting short 254 nm and long 366 nm wavelengths. Preparation of samples The extract of Bhrungaraj samples were prepared by taking 1.0 g of drug and 1-10 ml of solvent, extract was stirred for about 30 minutes and filtered. Preparation of Thin layers in plates The plates were cleaned, rinsed thoroughly until the water

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    identification of an unknown compound was determined through the process of recrystallization. The use of solvent determines the recrystallization process, so the selection of an appropriate solvent is vital for this process since the solubility of the crystals in the hot solvent, is dependent on decreased solubility when the solution is cooling. The solubility test helps in the determination of an appropriate solvent for a specific solute based on whether or not the solute dissolves

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    contains impurities that have a bad flavour or odor. Fractional distillation is used to remove or reduce impurities. Solvent recycling and solvent purification is another area where fractional distillation technology is applied. Industry and laboratories use large amount of solvents. Used solvents contain contaminants that can be removed by fractional distillation. The recycled solvents have purities suitable for re-use. Fractional distillation is used to separate the crude oil into its various components

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    Solvent n-hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone will use to elute the column in isolation of chemical constituents of figeroots chloroform partition. The solvent system of different ratios of hexane, hexane/ethyl acetate, hexane/acetone, and acetone will use. Silica gel 60 (mesh 230-400 ASTM) will use to pack CC. In order to achieve good separation, mass ratio of silica gel to compound 20:1and 50:1 will use. 3.10.2Column Packing Before starting to pack a column, a small piece of cotton is gently will

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    Organic Acid Lab Report

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    Add 20 ml of solvent to the solution in the separatory funnel. b) Place the plastic stopper (NOT greased) in the neck of the funnel. Shake c) Drain the lower aqueous layer through the stopcock into the same 250 ml beaker in which the solution had been prepared in steps above. d) Pour the upper solvent layer through the neck of the funnel into a clean 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Return the aqueous solution from the 250 ml beaker to the separatory funnel. Add another fresh 20 ml of solvent to the funnel

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    solution is the substance that is dissolved, while the solvent in the solution is the substance that dissolves the solute during dissolution. The question introduced in this lab is “What factors influence the rate at which one substances dissolves in another?” The three factors that affect the rate of dissolution are temperature, how much you stir the mixture, and the particle size of the substances. Temperature increases the chance of solute and solvent particles colliding with one another. Stirring the

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    Cocaine Synthesis

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    In literature, methanol has been used as a non-destructive solvent for the cocaine extraction from euro banknotes. . Different percentages of methanol were used to extract cocaine 50%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100%. In addition, PBS was also used to extract cocaine and each note was preceded by a second extraction with methanol for the matrix effect. Subsequently, the extraction by methanol, the euro bank note was washed by 20 ml Milli-Q water/ 5ml methanol. The extracted solution was diluted by different

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    is carried out because the solutions of the starting materials and the products are colorless.  The organic acid is soluble in water and thus, does not separate.  It is necessary to extract the propionic acid from the aqueous solution with solvent.  The solvent solution must be dried to remove residual water, following which

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    product of an organic reaction. A separatory funnel would be used for the isolation from the mixture. A solvent will be used to remove or isolate a compound of interest from a liquid substance. In most cases, water was used as the solvent to the reaction mixture to dissolve the inorganic compound. The organic compounds will be separated from the aqueous mixture by extraction with an organic solvent that is immiscible with water. Therefore, they will form two layers when they are mixed together. The

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    triphenylmethyl chloride. Methanol is then added and the class does the recrystallization . The methanol acts as a solvent for the reaction as a nucleophile. Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC.  When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was

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    was to identify the composition of over-the-counter analgesics by the method of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is used for rapid qualitative analysis of mixtures to determine and identify its components and purity. A development solvent was used to separate the analgesics found in both the known drug sample and an unknown sample of over-the-counter medications. The pertinent techniques for this experiment are spotting the stationary phase with the samples, placement of stationary

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    used as a separation technique to separate the acid, base, and neutral compounds. In extraction, two immiscible solvents with different polarities are used to dissolve and separate different solute components, so they form two distinct liquid layers. In this experiment, ethyl acetate, an organic solvent, and an aqueous solution, were used as the two immiscible solvents. The extraction solvent must be capable of dissolving one of the mixture components, without irreversibly reacting with it. While initially

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    Hexane Lab Report

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    Solvent used in the elution process would be the mobile phase and solvents of different polarity would have a significant impact on the separation due to the varying solubility of compounds in different solvents. Hexane, being the less polar solvent, interacts mainly with the less polar analytes but very slowly with polar analytes. Therefore using hexane at the start of the elution process allows the less polar compound to be eluted out first. After the complete collection of less polar analyte

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    of chromatography, and the one which this lab focuses on is paper chromatography. The components of the mixture, in this case, spinach leaves mixed with acetone, are pipetted at one end of the chromatography paper and hung in a jar slightly above solvent vapor to create the reaction. Hypothesis For this lab, we expect the polar pigments will have the largest Rf value whereas the non-polar pigments will

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    reaction mixture was transferred onto ice. NaOH was slowly added into the mixture, which resulted in acetic acid byproduct from the acetic anhydride reactant/solvent. This resulted in a clumpy and dark mixture. During

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    known as cation-exchange or anion-exchange chromatography, depending on whether the solutes to be exchanged are positively or negatively charged. Size Exclusion Chromatography: Here the molecules are separated according to their molecular weight and it is suitable for molecules having molecular weight of 2000 Daltons or more. Largest molecules are eluted first and the smallest molecules last. Affinity Chromatography: Here the stationary phase contains specific groups of molecules which can absorb

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    9-Fluorenone Lab Report

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    and extremely flammable. On the contrary, NaBH4 is relatively mild and it can be used with protic solvents. In this manner, 1.507 grs of the ketone 9-fluorenone were mixed with 30.0 ml of 95% ethanol in a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The bright yellow mixture was stirred during 7 minutes until all the components were dissolved. It is important to allow the ketone to dissolve completely in the solvent in

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    from nutmeg, we had to determine the best way to find a solvent that would properly recrystalize it. We used triphenylmethane as a test compound, attempting to find a solvent that would allow it to recrystalize. The most suitable solvent would dissolve the solute when the solvent is hot, not dissolve it when the solvent is cold, and should be fairly volatile and easily removable from the desired product. We tested water as a potential solvent and triphenylmethane would not dissolve when the water

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