Rachel Danzig AP Psychology Dr. Eisen August 20, 2015 I. Psychology’s History A. Psychology’s Roots 1. Prescientific Psychology a. Socrates and his student Plato stated that the human mind is separate from the body and our knowledge is born within us b. Aristotle, Plato’s student, disagreed, concluding that knowledge can not be preexisting and we grow it from our experiences within our memories c. In the 1600s Rene Descartes believed that the mind can survive the body’s death and our brain holds animal spirits in its fluid and flow from the brain through nerves enabling reflexes d. In 1620 Francis Bacon established that humans functioned around order and patterns e. Adding to Bacon’s ideas was John Be a smart test-taker i. Take time to read prompts, questions, and organize your points III. Careers in Psychology A. What Psychologists in Various Professions Do and Where They Work 1. Basic Research Subfields a. Cognitive Psychologists look at biology and the correlations with memory, perception, memory, and judgment, and they can work as professors, or specialists in schools or businesses b. Developmental Psychologists study research changes due to age in regards to behavior, they can work in educational and school psychology or gerontology c. Educational Psychologists are involved in psychology pertaining to learning i. Provide ways to improve learning environments or methods ii. Could be employed by the government or employee training programs d. Experimental Psychologists work in research institutions, businesses or government facilities and study behavior in animals and humans to gain, in their subfield, scientific information for future useable data e. Psychometric and Quantitive Psychologists study data and methods to gain psychological knowledge i.
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such as areas of human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes (McLeod, S. A. 2011).
When thinking about psychology it is interesting to think about all that has occurred in psychology thus far. Even as Robins, Gosling, and Craik (1999) mentioned there has been many trends that have occurred within psychology, such as, that of psychoanalysis, that of behaviorism, and even that of cognitive psychology. Thinking about all of these trends it can be observed that psychology has had different trends occur and there are probably some gaps that exist between all the trends within psychology. Therefore,
The theory is that behaviour is determined by the external environment. It is a part of psychology that is not related to the study of consciousness instead the study of behaviour within itself. Behavioural theory was founded and influenced in the early 20th century by John B Watson, Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner. John Watson theorized classical behaviourism which is the objective study of behaviour. Ivan Pavlov theorized classical conditioning where in an experiment dogs associated food with the arrival of the laboratory assistant through learned behaviour through an external stimulus. BF Skinner coined the term ‘Radical Behaviourism’ which theorizes that all action is predetermined and not
A main limitation of psychology as a field of study is that it never captures the nature of consciousness (Willig, 2013), as human mind is bound up with meanings and interpretations which differ from one individual to another
There are three ways in which a biological perspective helps in the study of psychology;
The main aim of this assignment is to find out the strength and weakness, similarities and differences between the different approaches of psychology such as biological approach, behavioural approach and psychodynamic approach. I have chosen mental illness to evaluate these approach.
Both behaviorism and psychoanalysis do not believe in the concept of free will in humans and they are both deterministic. Behavioral approach assets that the environment and the consequences of behavior control people while psychoanalysis believe that people are controlled by their unconscious drives. Through his observations, Freud believed that childhood experiences could lead to emotional problems in adulthood. Skinner in his experiment proved that behavior that produces pleasurable consequences is likely to be repeated whilst that which produces negative consequences is stamped out.
There are four main perspectives in psychology. These are known as; biological perspective, learning perspective, cognitive perspective, and sociocultural perspective. Each perspective aids in the understanding of human behavior. However, not one perspective can explain all of human behaviors. This is due to each perspective playing different roles in ones behavior. To fully understand human behaviors scientist must understand the four perspectives.
Psychologist view behaviorism as a more scientific point of view based on laws of learning that explains the way humans behave. Cognitivism has helped psychologist today with understating inside the brain and how it functions. A field based on Cognitivism called cognitive neuroscience has helped psychologist come up with a better view between the relationship of the brain and of thinking. On the other hand the humanistic view has little impact on science, this is because psychologist consider it a therapy. The humanistic approach has almost become universal in that psychologist establish a relationship with empathy and
Psychology is the the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context. The mind being the source of all thought and behaviour. It basically helps us explain how we think, feel and act both individually and in a social context.
Psychological thought has evolved from philosophical inquiry to scientific research. In your own words, describe the value of different perspectives in the field and the need for the subdivisions you read about in Lesson1Psychology is science about human minds and behavior. As a such, it is very complex, and field of research is never ending. Psychology is implements on day to day basis in our life, from commercials, everyday dealing with our kids at home, people at work, to more professional level in professional sports, job market, sales even war and let’s not forget politics. Politics seems to be who is playing better psychological game on the populations and less and less about believes and principals of the candidate. Being so west
A-level Psychology Memory Revision for Unit 1| Simply Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
“Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But since no one was listening, everything must be said again.” – André Gide
The human mind is a very complex organ which contains many psychological components that are infinite to comprehend. Social constructionism is a field that can be broken down into two different paths, socials and psychological behavior. The two films the Stanford Prison Experiment and The Hunting Ground are good examples of both of these processes.