Several factors prompted this decline such as: several economic problems, the rise of other trade routes, the European hunger for expansion, and weakness in the Ottoman government Furthermore, the Ottoman Empire was both politically and militarily strong, yet, it was too traditional and could not keep up with worldwide changes and modernity through time. Europe and the West were rapidly moving forward innovatively while the Ottomans stayed in their place for too long. All these problems led to the empire being less centralized in Europe. Simply, the Great Powers of Europe took advantage of this situation and allied to completely end the rule of Ottomans. To further affect the empire, European powers chose an Ottoman strength and turned it into a weak point.
The Mongols soon abandoned Champa as an attainable source, but the war in Annam would continue until the end of Kublai Khan’s reign. Kublai Khan failed badly in his attempts to gain control of Vietnam, but it is these attempts that led to Vietnam’s creation of border and cultures. The once disperse nation with little identity became unified through the war with the Mongols. From language, to trade, to tradition and religion, Vietnam could have become a vastly different country if it were have fallen to Chinese influence and control. Kublai Khan may have failed in his attempts to take control over Vietnam and Champa, but his failures set the contingencies of what was to become a new
The French and Indian War was important to the American Revolution because the debt from the war was the reason that Parliament started taxing the colonists. Also, the French and Indian War made Britain very weak, making the colonists’ actions work a whole lot better. Since France was not happy with the outcome of their war with Britain this was a main reasons for France’s interest in helping the now Americans throughout the Revolutionary War, which was very important to the colonies’ victory. The reason why Britain started to tax the colonists was because of the debt resulting from the French and Indian War. The first tax was the the tax on sugar, which was put on the colonists to help pay off the war debt.
Lovell writes the book for the same reasons as Beeching, to begin a narrative for history. Lovell writes that the Opium war is less prominent in Chinese memory than in history itself. She writes great accounts of the the war and the battles fought, but she overdoes the level of indecision on the British side. Lovell also tries to write the history of the Opium War in the last third of the book. This leads to a vague description of the war, which leads to an audience misinterpreting the purpose of the book.
In reality, raids mainly functioned as a crucial negotiation device for the nomads rather than as a means of fulfilling what the nomads lacked, especially in relation to China. Even though China was a considerably larger nation with an enormous army for most of history, the nomadic tribes managed to maintain their standing through their calvary’s raiding skills, demonstrating their might and retaining autonomy. For example, in Shi Ji, we see that the Xiongnu and Han arranged peace treaties in which Xiongnu received “tributary items” — such as silk, cloth, and grain — from Han with a promise to stop the raids against Han as an exchange. In addition, Jagchid and Symons demonstrate that what the nomads wanted to gain from their trade with China, their best known and most “advanced” neighbor, was mainly luxury goods in exchange for horses, a product unique to the nomads. The horses from the steppes played a vital part in Chinese military defense.
During the period from 755 to 763, the rebellion of An Lushan shook the ruling of the Tang empire. An Lushan, a Jiedu shi 節度使, is a part-Turkish and part Sogdian. Sogdians spoke a language from middle Persian. In 755, An Lushan rebelled and his troops took the eastern capital, Luoyang, easily in a very short time. After a few months, under the pressure of the rebellion of An Lushan, the emperor, Xuanzong had to flee away with the companion of his troops and his beloved concubine.
The government in Japan signed trading treaties which the daimyo and samurai were unhappy with the government decisions. The Japanese wanted to limit the western influences and maintain their independence which created the rise of nationalism. In 1866, the Tokugawa Shogun was overthrown by the feudal lords and samurai. The new emperor eliminated the government and reestablished the imperial throne, but the emperor did not have any political power and was seen as a political symbol. The Meiji Restoration began in 1868 to 1912 which transformed Japan society with western influence but maintaining their cultures and traditions.
Instead of joining the Russians in the war, the Austrians remained neutral and supported the French and British because of the risks and their limited capabilities, a result of their recent rebellions. Before the war even started, Austria led attempts in Vienna to defuse the situation where a resolution called the Vienna Note was created that appeased all the powers. The Vienna Note restored the balance of power to what it was before the conflict while preserving all the nation’s honour. However, there was no actual enforcing of the note because of the distrust among them and the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire refused to accept it because he saw it has an opportunity to gain British and French support against his traditional enemy, Russia. When Russia occupied the Dardanelles, Austria reacted aggressively and threatened to join the war against Russia because the Russian occupation endangered Austrian security.
Great Britain went into debt after the French and Indian war causing them to have to find some way to make more revenue. In order to try to climb out of debt, Britain started to enforce new taxations and regulation such as the sugar, currency, and stamp act and the internal and external taxes (Brinkley, 112-113). With the taxations placed on the colonists there was a new found argument of “taxation without representation.” That was one of the main arguments for breaking away the Great Britain. Without that argument, the argument of the colonists separating from Great Britain might not have ever occurred. Another reason the French and Indian war helped start the oncoming American Revolution was all of the boycotts as a result of Britain trying to increase its revenue from the colonists and crawl out of debt.
I mostly agree to some extent that the ‘Reform and Revolution’ was a real reform and that there had been numerous successes. However, I realized that it was not a full reform and revolution due to a few minor obstacles that had not been settled during that period (1911-1937). In the book “New Horizons: History”, Wong points out, “After the establishment of the Nanjing government, a series of reforms were carried out in hopes of modernizing China politically, economically, militarily, and culturally to realize Sun Yat Sen’s dream of reconstructing China.” The fundamental thought of the Reform was to bring to fruition “Sun Yat Sen’s dream of reconstructing China” (New Horizon: History) which was to modernize China in different extents.