The Mughal and Manchu/Qing empires were formed during the 16th century and became two of the largest, economically successful, and most powerful dynasties in Asia for over two hundred years. “In each empire, hereditary emperors ruled over multi-ethnic and multi-religious states. As the result of conquest, ethnic minorities ruled both the Qing Dynasty in China and Mughal Empire in India”. These empires thrived and expanded over the years due to their effective leadership and implicit understanding of the inherent problems of minority rule. The Mughal Empire in India was created by Muslims from Central Asia who maintained control over a population consisting primarily of Hindus and the Manchu or Qing Dynasty consisted of a small number of Manchurians ruling a vast population of Han Chinese.
Islam is a religion that controls their follower's daily lives. It quickly spread throughout many large and small civilizations all throughout the world. Two civilizations that Islam affected were the Byzantine Empire and China. The Byzantine empire was the section of Rome that remained after the fall of Rome and was a very successful civilization in its time. During the rise of Christianity, the Byzantine empire became a Christian-based civilization and used the church to solve its political and economic problems that sprang up after the fall of Rome.
In order for any empire to be ruled well, there would have to be specific details to that rule. Characteristics of a well-run empire includes, constructions, trade increases, cosmopolitan cities, effective bureaucracy, communication, justice system, and citizenship. In the Han Empire there was many inventions and creations in order to run the empire. Horse-drawn carriages showed great improvements in both appearance and construction techniques. In Eastern Han Dynasty, they added on to the horse-drawn carriages and made it into double-shafted horse-drawn carriages.
An empire is defined as an extensive supreme authority across many countries; something that cannot be broken or unrivaled in its glory and throughout the ages there have been many rise and fall situations where an empire can last for decades but also can fall within the mere beginning of when it starts to spread. Ancient empires before the 600BC used several strategies to become successful. One of the methods that made empires successful and sustainable during this period was effective war skills. During this period, empire were usually acquired and created through wars. For instance, Nebuchadnezzar the then King of Babylon made his kingdom very powerful through capturing Jerusalem and bringing it to Babylon in 586 BC.
During the ancient world, an empire was a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire, or Roman Empire. To make a successful empire, it needs a healthy mixture of military, a strong efficient leader, a sturdy government, religion, trade or spread of ideas, and social ranking. The Achaemenid Persian Empire was the first major global empire in history, spanning most of the civilized world and containing 44% of the world’s population at the time, a part that has never since been exceeded. The Persian Empire managed to successfully rule much of the Middle East, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia and Europe for hundreds of years.
The Gupta empire and the Qin dynasty were highly advanced empires of their day. The Gupta empire started on 320 BCE and ended on 530 CE. The Qin dynasty, lasting a lot shorted and starting earlier, laster from 246 BCE to 207 BCE. The Gupta empire and the Qin dynasty are mostly different, but they show some notable similarities. One difference is their religion.
The Ming Dynasty was a dynasty that brought much change to China and lived for many years. It reigned from 1368 to 1644. Ming Hong Wu founded the dynasty and ruled until 1398. After he died Yong Le took over and ruled over China. Yong Le was able to built, restore, and rule all across China during his reign.
4. External Pressures on the late Ming, Early Qing: Mongols and Manchus: This was an issue because the pressure of the Mongols and the invasion by the Manchus led to the end of the Ming Empire. The late Ming Empire was under pressure in the North from the Manchus and the Mongols. In the late 1500s, large numbers of Mongols were unified by their devotion to the Dalai Lama. A military leader named Galdan restored Mongolia as a military power around 1600.
When the Qing dynasty overtook the Ming dynasty, they found there was much to be done in the Chinese Empire. In the Ming’s last years, taxes rose for peasant to help the government, but “the new taxes and duties provoked anger and discontent, which was aggravated by the poor economy and the dismissal of state employees, and finally resulted in insurrections (1627-1644),” (Ming Decline and Collapse 258). The Qing needed to fix the government and make their citizens pleased, before they could be sure their rule would last. The Qing emperors, such as Kangxi or Qianlong, went to work fixing roads and waterways, as well as lowering taxes. It was also known that most governments failed because of corrupt officials therefore, “resumption of the civil
Tokugawa rule brought unity and stability, but it did not prevent change. In the 1600s and 1700s, each of Japan’s main class-samurai, peasantry, and urban dwellers was gradually transformed. The samurai by custom were loyal, and proud, but two centuries of peace slowly dulled their fighting edge. As cities grew larger, Japan’s urban culture became increasingly sophisticated.