He also neglects the relationship between managerial behavior and organizational effectiveness. Furthermore, he takes a 'neutral' position on the managerial role omitting influences such as ownership and power. Identified contingency factors explain differences in the make-up of managerial work. The empirical study is based on five organizations in action. The small sample size means that the results should not be applied to all industry, organizations or management positions.
Occupations also have purpose which means while someone is performing an occupation they are trying to achieve goals. Purposefulness is also from the view of the person performing the occupation and will be different for every individual. The goals that are set by the person are affected by the meaning that the person ascribes to the occupation and the developmental structure of the person. These things together effect the context that the occupational performance takes place in. Based on this model for occupational therapy we can assess how we carry out our occupations in the context we are in and the meaning that we place on this context (Nelson, 1988:
The managerial beliefs and assumptions are related to the two essential elements :- the task and the employees. Managerial assumptions deals with the nature of the task and how it can be accomplished. And the assumptions relating to the employees deals with employee’s nature and behavior. However the managerial assumptions are formed by two other levels of culture forces. In cultures high power distance, loyalty and obedience is required in a higher ability.
Resilience in managerial life is worth looking in to as managers need to be more resilient so that they can bounce back from the loads of pressures and adversities encounter in business. In this context, there is a need to understand the resilient ability of a manager against his personality traits and thinking pattern. With this assumption, a research is designed to examine the relationship of personality dispositions, cognitive style and decision making style with resilience of management students. A sample of 130 management students was selected randomly between the age group of 20-25 years. The tests used are Resilience Inventory, Myers Briggs Type Indicator, Cognitive Style Inventory and Decision Making Inventory.
Source: Graduate School of Business Administration. University of Washington, “Self-efficacy: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Huaman Resource Management.” December 1994. Vol: 12, No.3, 472-483. Introduction This review reviews the article “Self-efficacy: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management.” The review will begin by giving a summary of the original research study, and then discuss the structure of the article. The review will further review the presentation and unfolding of main ideas in the study, while mentioning different critique aspects in the article.
However, literature showed a few studies that presented results on the project manager motivation. For example, Seiler et al., (2012) presented an integrated model of motivators for project managers. They focused on relevant motivators for project managers in Switzerland. Dwivedula & Bredillet, (2010) concentrated in variables such as alignment of the individual organizational goals, employee empowerment, and communication to define work motivation along with nature of work
Application of motivational theories Maslow’s theory shows that there are different types of needs through which an individual progresses. A manager must be aware of the fact that there are variations among people in terms of needs. Since people differ in their needs, perception and satisfaction levels, a rigid approach to motivation may not work. By observation, interaction and listening to subordinates, a manager can gain an insight into the need level is through surveys and analysis of grievances. A manager must take a look at the nature of complaints of his people, which may indicate their needs and expectations.
It is of fundamental importance in the management of human resources. Drucker (1988) contends that the duty of executives/ mangers at all levels is to make their workers effective so as to maximize their output motivation plays a large part in determining the level of employees performance which influences how effectively the organization depends on the ability of all levels of managers to effectively utilize the subordinates under their control. Early theories of motivation are: Maslow’s hierarchy of need. Which shows that human to higher needs hence motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy? - Macgregor’s Theories X and
Goodness of fit test will be used to evaluate the normal data. Pearson correlation test and linear regression will be used for evaluation of severity of relationship. Partial least squares will be used to test the hypothesized relationships between KM practices and innovation