The fermentations of substrates yield acetone, butanol, butyric acid and iso-propanol is mainly the action of predominant bacteria like Clostridium and Butyribacterium. The conversion of sugars to pyruvate via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) or glycolysis pathway initiates the butyric acid fermentation. As a consequence of pyruvic acid fermentation, the other compounds such as acetic, propionic, butyric, formic, lactic acids, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes are produced (Eastmann and Fergusan 1981 and Pavlostatis and Giraldo-Gomez
It is often used in the selective identification of enteric bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella. The TSI agar has glucose, lactose and sucrose as the sources of carbohydrates. Phenol red is the acid base indicator incorporated in the medium. The TSI medium indicates whether the bacteria ferments glucose only, or lactose and sucrose with or without production of gas. Nitrate serves as a source of nitrogen for many bacteria.
Cellulose is the main constituent material in renewable lignocellulosic materials, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. It is branched glucose polymers which are composed of 1,4 glucose units linked by 1,4-D-glycosidic bond (Sharada et al., 2013). Cellulose is commonly degraded by cellulase. A big percent of cellulose is commercially utilized for paper production industries. Meanwhile, a small fraction of cellulose produced is used for biofuel purposes.
plastic’s properties are determined by monomers that are present in the chain, links number, and structure cross linkage. The Cross linking of monomers increases the thermal stability and rigidity of polymers (Theinsathis and Chandrachai, 2009). Types of bioplastics: There are many types of bioplastics as shown in figure 2 for example: the starch based plastics one of the most important bioplastics and used widely, polylactic acid plastics(PLA) produced from the sugar cane and through fermentation of hexoses by bacteria, Poly 3 hydroxybutyrate(PHB) that produced from certain type of bacteria that processing the starch or glucose, etc. (Schubert and Surajit,2013) Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polymers that produced by certain bacteria and they are a large family in which Polyhydroxybutyrate(PHB) is one of its member. Polyhydroxybutyrate(PHB) used as alternative for the synthetic plastics as they have same properties.
Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch), but is more extensively branched and compact than starch. Both are white powders in their dry state. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in thecytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the glucose cycle.
The authors reported that the same factor also partially promotes the formation of distromatic thalli of U. pertusa and other Ulva species, highlighting the potentially important role of thallusin for the normal development of green macroalgae. Pure thallusin strongly induced the differentiation of M. oxyspermum, even at very low effective concentrations between 1 fg mL-1 and 1 ag mL-1 (Matsuo et al., 2005; Gao et al., 2006). Although thallusin can be obtained from bacterial cultivations, Nishizawa et al. (2007) undertook the total syntheses of (±)-thallusin and its analogues to allow a detailed examination of thallusin’s biological activity. Whereas the compound
Natural kefir has a refreshing, yeasty and fizzy taste. The amounts of ethanol and CO2 produced during fermentation of kefir are affected by the production condition. In modern manufacturing procedures has 0.01-0.1% ethanol. Meanwhile kefir which has been produced from grains in laboratory has ethanol concentrations as high as 0.25%. Acetaldehyde and acetone are the contributor of kefir’s taste.
The vast majority of phenolic mixes are polymerized into bigger atoms, for example, the Dad (proanthocyanidins; consolidated tannins) and lignans. Besides, phenolic acids may happen in nourishment plants as esters or glycosides conjugated with other characteristic mixes, for example, flavonoids, alcohols, hydroxyfatty acids, sterols, and glucosides (28). They can be characterized in light of the number and course of action of their carbon iotas and are generally discovered conjugated to sugars and natural acids.
Fermentation tank is the main site of the design since it is the site fort he chemical production of lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria. The fermentation method is very importatn because each fermentation style has its own advantages and disadvantages.pretreated molasses, sulphuric acid, cells and the nutrients enter fermentator and as a product lactic acid is obtained along with the recyled nutrients and the cells.The chemical reaction that takes place in the fermentation tank is the lacic acid fermantation.lactic acid feremntation starts with the glycolysis process which results in 2 ATP production and the conversion of glucose to two acetyl-coA molecules.During this process electron carriers such as NAD are used. Sfter the glucolysis the pathway fort he homoferemntative and the heterofermentative bacteria diverge. Heterofermentative bacteria goes into PK pathway which leads to several different products besides the lactic acid.On the other hande homofermentative bacteria undergoes glycolytic pathway and only produces lactic acid in isomerically pure manner. The types of fermentation techniques are various fotr the industrial scale lactic acid production.
Natural dyes are preferred due to less environmental pollution. Dyeing performance in terms of color parameters (K/S, L*, a*, b* and ΔE), and fastness properties (wash, perspiration, and light fastness) are studied and the samples show high tensile strength, high color strength, and high fastness properties. These results will be helpfull for industrial application with the production of a natural dye as an inexpensive source from banana leaves as a by-product. Another objective of this work is to increase the production of eco-textile garments. 7.