SEMINAR REPORT OF PRENATEL DIAGNOSIS: TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS Submitted to: Submitted by: Date: Centre for Human Genetics School of Health Science ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the course of present work it has been my privilege to receive help and assistance from many quarters. I take great pleasure in acknowledging here, my debt to them. I am deeply indebted to my Guide Dr. Preeti Khetarpal who has given me this topic for seminar and whose inspiration and invaluable guidance has been unfailingly available to me at all the stages of my seminar “PRENATEL DIAGNOSIS:TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS”. Dr. Preeti Khetarpal …show more content…
It is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body’s major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arm, leg, neck and head. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound i.e. color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler. • Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to show the direction and speed of blood flow through a blood vessels. • Power Doppler is a sensitive technique then the color technique and it shows more detail about blood flow. It does not helps the radiologists to determine the direction of blood flow which may be important in some situations. • Spectral Doppler shows graphically measurements of blood flow. It can also convert the blood flow information into distinctive sound that can be heard with every …show more content…
The most common method in chromosomal analysis is karyotyping analysis. Karyotyping analysis: Preparation and analysis of chromosomes from cultured amniotic fluid cells or cultured amniotic chorionic villi require at least 2 weeks. The procedure for the karyotyping analysis form aminocenetsis fluid will be take amniotic fluid cells and culture this with media and then harvested them and make slides and then karyotype these slides. The chromosome analysis after ultrasonography is associated with chromosome abnormalities, karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cells or fetal blood cells obtained by cordocenetsis may be performed after ultrasonographic detection of an abnormality. The mostly chromosome abnormalities have been found because of cystic hygroma, limb abnormalities, omphalocele, duodenal stenosis, hydrocephalus and malformations of the face. (thompson, 1986) 3.2.Biochemical Assays for Metabolic Diseases: More than 100 metabolic disorders can be diagnosed prenatally in chorionic villus tissue or cultured amniotic fluid cells, and a few rare conditions can even be identified directly by assay of a substances in amniotic fluid. The metabolic disorders diagnosed by enzyme assay in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic fluid
Corotto, F., Ceballos, D., Lee, A., & Vinson, L. (2010). Making the Most of the Daphnia Heart Rate Lab: Optimizing the Use of Ethanol, Nicotine & Caffeine. The American Biology Teacher , 176-179. The purpose of this article was to test the effects of chemicals on Daphnia magna.
Dating Ultrasound The first scan an expectant mother will have will usually be during the 8 – 14 weeks mark. This initial scan is often referred to as the dating ultrasound. The reason for this is because it is during this scan that the sonographer will estimate the baby’s estimated date of delivery or due date based on the measurements of the baby. The dating ultrasound can also include a nuchal translucency test, which is one of the components of the Down syndrome screening procedure.
Sanders found it unnecessary for a chorionic Villus sampling to find out if her child had a chromosome deformities. She also opt of taking the maternal blood screening test, because she was not at risk (M. Sanders, personal communication, January 30, 2016). The Amniocentesis test help deal with a pregnancy if a disorder is found. Fetal MRI are used for a detail image of the child and often use for to better detect abnormalities. The chorionic villus sampling is use to find genetic defects.
Some of the tests for diagnosis during pregnancy include ultrasound, amniocentesis, and an AFP (alfa-fetaprotein) test. An ultrasound is a non-invasive test if done abdominally, and oftentimes spina bifida can be seen as a result of the ultrasound. Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into the amniotic sac and a sample of amniotic fluid is obtained and tested. If the level of AFP is found to be higher than average, this could be an indication of spina bifida.
Ventilation/perfusion scans: Ventilation/perfusion scans, sometimes called a VQ (V=Ventilation, Q=perfusion) scan, is a way of identifying mismatched areas of blood and air supply to the lungs. It is primarily used to detect a pulmonary embolus. The perfusion part of the study uses a radioisotope tagged to the blood which shows where in the lungs the blood is perfusing. If the scan shows up any area missing a supply on the scans this means there is a blockage which is not allowing the blood to perfuse that part of the organ.
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also commonly known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a congenital disorder characterised by a wide number of defects, varying in severity. Most notable of these defects include congenital heart disease, palatal deformations and hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism. Affected individuals often have cognitive or learning difficulties such as ADHD and may suffer from psychiatric disorders in later life, especially schizophrenia. Deficiencies in renal and gastrointestinal function are common, along with feeding issues in babies.
Regardless of the improvements that have been made there is still a risk of miscarriages as a result. This risk factors can be contributed to the invasiveness of the procedure as well as the time during the pregnancy at which it is performed. The later the genetic testing is performed, the more developed the unborn child is and the later the possible abortion would take place. The two most common forms of testing are ¨amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling¨ (Rebouché and Rothenberg 989). Both of these tests ¨[require] extracting cells from the fetus in utero, either through the mother 's abdomen or vagina¨ (Rebouché and Rothenberg 989).
Astronomers use the terms "red shifted" and "blue shifted" to describe how light changes as an object moves closer to or away from an observer. The Doppler effect affects light waves the same way it affects sound waves. As an object in space moves farther away from the observer, the light it gives off is shifted to the red end of the visible light spectrum because its wavelengths are longer due to the doppler effect. If an object moves closer to the observer, the light it gives off is shifted to the blue end of the visible light spectrum because its wavelengths are shorter. Astronomers have been able to use this to measure the expansion of the universe.
2.03 Electromagnetic Spectrum- The Visible Assignment 1. A Doppler radar can see the amount of precipitation that there is in a thunderstorm. It can also see the direction of the precipitation in a thunderstorm as it moves closer or away from the radar.
Hospital-acquired infection can be referred to as a nosocomial infection. This is an infection that’s contracted from the staff and/or area of the healthcare facility/hospital. The staff can spread infection while dealing with the patient/s, as well as contaminated equipment, sheets from the bed and or air droplets can spread this infection. Sometimes the microorganism originates from the patient 's skin micro biota. Nosocomial pneumonia is a nosocomial bacterial infection that is mostly seen in surgical intensive care units (ICUs).
Introduction The purpose of this lab was to use chemical and physical tests to identify indicators of disease in synthetic urine samples. This lab tested samples for protein levels, glucose levels, and pH levels. In a normally functioning individual, proteins cannot pass through the glomerulus; therefore proteins should not be found in urine. However, in the nephrons of individuals with Bright’s Disease, the glomerulus no longer stops all proteins from entering the urine (Giuseppe et al., 2002, pp.
Then the returned signals are processed and displayed on the screen, as either a real image or different artefacts. Using an ultrasound, this is a simplified way of understanding an image acquisition. In the following text, the principles of ultrasound generation from a piezoelectric crystal and physical properties governing image creation are discussed, with appropriate examples. The principle: The ultrasound works on Doppler Effect, which is based on work by Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.
The Modalities of Physical Therapy Many people have heard of physical therapists and have a basic understanding of the various methods which the therapist use. They know the therapist will perform stretches with the patient and maybe use another machine to help the rehabilitation process, but do they completely understand the means the physical therapists use? The answer is no. The purpose of this essay is to explain the different modalities physical therapists use to help patients recover from their injuries.