Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country. During the past years, the government and NGOs have undertaken various attempts to enhance agricultural productivity particularly that of cereal crops so as to achieve food security and to reduce poverty in the country. The available studies on the productivity of cereal crops in general and maize production in particular in Ethiopia found low productivity in comparison with the international standards (Alemayehu, 2009), although, the
ntroduction The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), defines famine as a complete inaccessibility of food in a given area leading to death (Tran, 2012). The percentage of undernourished people, in sub-Saharan Africa, has increase from twenty eight per cent in 2004–2006 to twenty nine per cent in 2008, while developing countries have an average of seventeen percent for the same period (UN, 2009). This indicates a contradiction to achieving the Millennium Development Goal 1, which is to halve the population living in hunger by 2015 from 1990, both globally and in Africa. USAid funds the World Food Programme (WFP), a programme that initiated the Food Security Nutrition Assessment (FSNA), in order to monitor the world’s food security status.
This makes the analysis more complicated. Human capital inputs have been recognized as critical factors in achieving recent sustained growth in productivity in some African countries (Schultz, 2003). Farmers affected by malnutrition and ill health could experience lower productivity and income due to impaired work capacity in the field and reduced management and supervision abilities (Antle and Pingali, 1994). Farm work, particularly
First by reducing the prices of foods and imposes the punishments on the traders who will not follow the rules. So the poor citizen can buy adequate nutrients. Second, providing farmers the right to grow food to feed them, sell surplus and farm inputs such as fertilizer and seeds, in addition to that being cheaper. So these farmers can live in a better standard. In 2007, the percent of emergency food in South Africa was 400%.
In particular, it caused a rice shortage (Sharp decline in supply of rice) and famine in the country. Due to the United Nations’ FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), almost 65% of the country’s paddies were devastated by Nargis. The second potential non-price determinant could be advancement in technology. It is known that today modern tools, machineries are used in any area of agriculture in order to increase the sufficiency of land, improve the quality and supply more goods in the market. Japan’s agriculture can be a good example.
This further puts a financial burden of rural communities who see their agricultural activities slowly disappear in favor of cheaper imports from China, South America or the like. As s result, rural economies are often very fragile and lack the robustness of the industrialized urban
Abstract The growing human population will definitely increase demand for food and fibre to feed an additional 2 billion people by 2050. Several gains that were made in the 1970s through the use of high yielding varieties and high-tech technologies are being reversed because there is evidence of soil degradation and destruction of natural resources especially in Africa and parts of Asia. The most notable challenges affecting agricultural productivity include; climate change, decline in soil and water quality, reduction of farmer participation in conservation practices and uneven policies that do not ensure sustainability. Sustainable agriculture means that it should cover all the five aspects of sustainability; biological productivity, economic
This is often one of the leading causes of price increases on many products. Because the produce economy is nearly entirely based on the needs of the consumer, this economical system is constantly alive. The role that organic farming plays, however, has the potential to curve this economy in a way that the world has never seen. While most changes in agriculture supported a growing population, organic farming does not. It is well known that organic farming has very few positive outcomes, and very many negative outcomes.
These reactions are letting the management and benefactors to discount the fundamental causes of food insecurity. Even worse, a recent analysis found evidence of a disincentive effect on agricultural production, exacerbated by food aid’s “continuance during good harvest years and its distribution in non-emergency regions of the country” (Teressa and Heidhues 1998:132). Part of the problem is the high volume of non-emergency food aid and food-for-work, which increases food supplies and depresses prices in local markets. To reduce dependency and create incentives for farmers and traders, at least where nascent markets exist, relief programming should shift from food to cash transfers cash-for-work rather than food-for-work, perchance financed by monetisation of food
This fact has convinced many farmers lately to be in trend and switch for a farming system to fulfil the consumer’s demands. The conventional farming is very costly because of the high price of the inputs (fertilizer, pesticides etc.) whereas, the inputs of organic farming practice are quite cheaper. Due to the Globalization government of India is reducing the fertilizer subsidy day by day and this leading increment of production cost (conventional system). The conventional potato market demand is quite as compared to the organic potato.