Flippen (2012), explained that cognitivism focuses on mind and especially mental process. With the opening of human mind thinking, knowing, recollection and solution of problem which is deemed valuable for learning. With educational technology is the best way for a teacher to using cognitivism in the classroom. Application of Theory: Herring (2012), discussed that cognitive learning theory had been center on human thought process. In this theory learning take place when new knowledge obtained or previous knowledge is modified.
TPACK can be redefined as; the pedagogical dimensions that use the new technologies in constructive methods to deliver subject content in a manner that offers the learners a new understanding of the world around them. Basically the combination of these three factors technology, pedagogy and content knowledge have formed and shaped the TPACK model to be considered as the most important element in the learning process, the TPACK in the learning process can lead to success or failure process or outcomes, it depends on both the student and the teacher, everyone has his own role for it to be successful, the students have to improve their skills in the ICT as a receiver, their social communications and his critical thinking to be able to deal with the pedagogy dimension can be used inside the classroom, and regarding the teacher has to develop his skills in the ICT as well but as a sender, has to have a deep understanding for the pedagogy dimensions and to have a strong back ground about the taught subject therefore TPACK does not mean that the teacher has to deal with each element of (T, P, and C) separately but it means in simple words that the teacher has to create the pot where he needs to place these elements together for the complex interaction amongst them to take place which can be considered later as the integration between the technology and the
Redefining School Leadership responsibilities There is a greater need to redefine the way leadership is looked at if we need to improve schools and student learning outcomes by (A) Providing higher degree of autonomy and support that help school leaders understand how they can improve student learning and school process through accountability and responsibility (B) Supporting, evaluating and developing teacher quality: School leaders must be able to adapt teaching programmes that address local needs and promote team work among teachers and help in teacher’s professional development (C) Goal setting, assessment and accountability: Leaders must be able to set strategic direction and optimise capacities to develop school plan and goals monitor progress and use data to help improve practices (D) Strategic resource management: The leader must be able to use resources wisely both human and finance for the benefit of the organisation (E) Collaboration with other schools: School leaders must be able to be involved in matters that are beyond their own school borders II. Distributed School
When being linked to education, professional development means the development of a teacher in his or her profession role. Many scholars defined professional development in different ways. Glatthorn, more specifically, defines it as follows: "Teacher development is the professional growth a teacher achieves as a result of gaining increased experience and examining his or her teaching systematically"(1995:41). Fielding and Schalock(1985) affirm, in the same vein, that the one who looks at professional development has to examine the content of the experiences, the processes of professional development, and the contexts in which it will takes place. However, Ganser(2000) claims that professional development includes formal and informal experiences; formal experiences are all about mentoring, attending workshops and professional meetings, whereas, informal experiences are related to reading the professional publications and expanding the knowledge by what is related to the academic
OUTCOMES BASED EDUCATION: A FOCUSED EDUCATION Abstract: Outcome-based education, an execution based methodology at the bleeding edge of educational modules improvement, offers a capable and engaging method for transforming and overseeing building instruction. Outcomes based education (OBE) is a process that involves the restructuring of curriculum, assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the achievement of high order learning and mastery rather than the accumulation of course credits” (Tucker, 2004). Accordingly the essential point of OBE is to encourage craved changes inside the learners, by expanding information, creating abilities and/or decidedly affecting demeanors, qualities and judgment. OBE typifies the possibility
- Oversight and accountability tasks of monitoring, evaluation and revalidation or correction of educational practices. - Empowerment and computation ability to articulate needs and choices and to make effective advocacy to ensure desired outcomes in the education sector. - Production of cumulative and comparative knowledge to increase understanding of educational processes and practices. Thus, Educational Research is to solve educational problem in systematic and scientific manner, it is to understand, explain, predict and control human behavior. Gary Anderson, in his book, ‘Fundamentals of Educational Research’ has mentioned some characteristics of Educational Research which are as follows: i.
It offers information to help teachers improve, whether they are starting out as an English language teacher, or whether they are already a highly experienced English language teacher. It integrates the idea of “reflective practice”: the significance of reflecting on what you are doing, as a crucial part of your development process. According to Schwartz and Bryan (1998), professional development means something different to individuals. A simple definition of professional development is a plan to provide opportunities to progress professionally or individually. A more formal meaning of professional development is contribution and participation in courses, programs, workshops and other activities by the aim of developing and bring up-to-date professional skills (Schwartz & Bryan, 1998).
An Invitation to Life: The Art of Teaching Introduction Teaching is defined as the process of education which is guided by personal values, educational needs, and a range of beliefs that a teacher holds to be true (Eisner, 1994). In order to teach effectively, one has to rely on educational theories which inform them about how children learn best. Moreover, the beliefs of an educator impacts classroom decision making, ultimately influencing children’s’ chances and opportunities to learn (Levin, He, & Allen, 2014). However, there is a gap between theoretical and practical knowledge of an emerging educator due to many reasons (Hascher, Cocard, & Moser, 2004). In this paper, we would be looking at the various issues regarding the art of teaching, namely, the importance of theory together with an educator’s teaching philosophy and beliefs, the increasing gap between theories and real-life experiences and practices, why it is a challenge to put theory and learning into practice and lastly, on how we as educators, can bridge that gap in order for us to embrace a mind-set of continual change as teaching is ultimately a life-long journey.
2. It looks out for some benefits technology can bring to educational management which people are not aware of 3. It point out the areas that technologies can be used in an educational administration to increase administrative efficiency. 4. It gives guidelines for effective use of technologies in educational management or administration.
The views of the Constructivist, Behaviorist and Cognitivism on Education Technology. Behaviourist such as B. F. Skinner believed that the behaviourist reinforcement theory still impact education widely today in terms of educational technology. He found that behaviour is shaped and maintained by its reinforcing consequences and was embedded in the educational practices (Skinner, 1958). Students can access explanation on topics and take short quiz to better their understanding through technology. Constructivists believe that knowledge is constructed and students should be able demonstrate their knowledge through different forms.