To Marx, alienation is dangerous in a society because it denies workers “their human, creative origins” (Hampsher-Monk 1992: 499). A flaw that Marx sees in capitalism is that for the working class, work is very specialized, meaning that a worker only needs one set of skills to produce in a factory. The ruling class view specialization as a positive, since for them it translates to high efficiency and productivity which yields a higher margin of profit. Due to specialization, Marx argues that the worker does not reach their fullest potential in life, and therefore perceives capitalism to be an unfair economic system (Hancock 1971: 65). Moreover, Marx viewed “human beings as essentially social” and because humans are social, work should be “within a context of social relations” (Sayers 2011: 81).
Serving as an evolutionary step in the development of industrial labor, Frederick Taylor and his concept of Scientific Management changed the nature of factory work in many ways. One of the ways factory work changed was through the utilization of piecework labor, a system in which the amount of work a laborer produced determined their wage. Whereas factories used to set a certain wage for all workers of the same task, Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management encouraged each individual operative to fulfill a particular standard through the acceleration of their own production. Upton Sinclair portrayed such a heightened pace in his novel The Jungle: They worked with furious intensity, literally upon the run--at a pace with which there is nothing
Prosperity could only exist as a result on the productivity of the workmen and machines in the workplace and maximum prosperity would only exist as a result of a maximum productivity. It tells that the primary objects of the workmen and management are training and development of each individual. Principles stated, appeared to be self-evident, many workmen view it as a childish point of act. Instead of using effort, in return of having the largest amount of work, workmen would plan to do as little as they safely can in order to turn out far less work. In many situations, proper days of work do not establish one third to one half resulting to a under work.
For example, as Karl Marx and Max Weber believed that social conflict was intrinsic to the organization of capitalistic societies, Émile Durkheim found it to be abnormal and damaging to industrial production. As well, just as Weber was cautious in terms of a revolution, Marx embraced the fast-paced movements such as collective protest as it unified the working class and defined their struggles. In conclusion, the sociologists helped reflect a concern for the consequences of modern life through their influential philosophies of the working class during industrialism, and their ideologies on the social constraints of
1960) Theory Y, on the other hand, was introduced as positive approach on management of organizations. It is based on the philosophy that human beings must be treated fairly and humanely in a working environment. McGregor’s Theory Y has the following assumptions: • Work is vital to man’s physical and psychological growth. The effort needed to do work is as natural as leisure to man. • An average human being is interested and will want to do well in his work.
The Human Relations Approach emphasises the importance of human needs in the workplace and the responsibility of management to meet those needs. There are two prevailing theories in this approach to management. The Theory X and Theory Y approach first coined by Douglas McGregor and the Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow. Maslow 's Theory of Motivation is based on five individual categories. These are Physiological, Security, Social, Self-Esteem and Self-Actualisation.
Nonetheless, in the 19th century, a researcher has discovered that increasing minimum wages can efficiently encourage workers to boost their labour skill, quality of work and then labour productivity will be promoted. While the company has high production efficiency, at the same time, will increase the enhancement of competitiveness between each firm. Despite it increases the cost of firm; it will not diminish the competitiveness among the firms. When the fierce competition occurred between the firms, they will provide many types of products which let people have more choice to consume. Besides, the labourers will increase loyalty to the firm which they work.
Researchers have shaped compelling evidence for the fundamental relation between employee performance and how management acts with them (Boheene & Asuinura, 2011). They claim that the effectiveness of human resource practices, particularly employee selection, performance appraisals, benefits and reward management, procedures and employee training and development often have a direct effect on the productivity and performance of the employee. And implementing an effective human resource management can enhance the organization 's ability to attract and maintain qualified and motivated employees yield greater profitability, low employee turnover and these invariably lead to higher productivity. The research noted that recruitment procedures that provide a large pool of qualified applicants, paired with a
Human resource management’s roots can be traced back to the time of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century. With the development of the welfare tradition a chain of voluntary initiatives to improve employee’s conditions took place. Before this time very few large organisations existed but the factory system developed with the invention of new technology. The work environment was very adverse and employees including young children worked very long hours for very little pay. The employees had very few, if any, rights.
Critics of his theory objected on the “do more” policy they were of the opinion that it placed an undue pressure on the worker to increase their performance and going beyond their limits. The focus on productivity which ultimately results in profitability led a few management personnel to exploit both workers and customers. As a response, more workers went into unions and secured a layout of doubt in relations between management and worker for