Scientists have long assumed that the physical structure and condition of stream and river channels have pervasive effects on biological communities and processes (Hynes, 1970; Allan, 1995). Channel geomorphology also establishes relationship between benthic communities in different ways. Spindler, Patrice conducted a study of associations of stream channel morphology and macroinvertebrates. Significant taxa differences between tributary streams and large rivers were identified, with the greatest taxa richness occurring in tributary streams and shifts in species to more tolerant taxa in the larger rivers. The macroinvertebrate community responds to substrate parameters such as particle size and embeddedness, which directly affect benthic habitat.
Unfortunately our oceans are suffering from many types of pollutants that are prominent in our environment. One of the main distributors of pollution is sewage. Sewage and other polluting substances flow into the world's rivers and drainage pipes until all of the substances dump out into the ocean. In addition to sewage, other chemicals finds its way to the oceans, which leads to the reduction of oxygen being released into the atmosphere. With this in place, the waters become murky and filled with substances that can harm marine life.
Contamination with trace metals has become a great concern around the world, especially in developing countries including India (Alagarsamy, 2006). With the rapid industrialization and economic development in coastal region, these metals are to be introduced to aquatic environment (Feng et al., 2004; Romano et al., 2004). Contaminated marine sediments have been recognized as a very important deposit for persistent toxic substances (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds) released into the aquatic environment from various sources. Identification of the natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals is an important task in marine pollution research (Esen et al., 2010). Previous studies have shown that human exposure to a high concentration
Water erosion or flowing water continuously shape and reshape landscape of the land. The property of water to lift and transport loose rock fragments can wear rocks by acting abrasively in other rocks. Water can even dissolve minerals present in soil and carry it downstream before deposition. Rainwater falls on slopes runs on downhill creates cut small channels known as rills. Rills when deepen further form gullies end soon join rivers and streams.
Natural aquatic bodies are being polluted due to untreated effluents released from agricultural, industrial and sewage waste waters. These pollutants are harmfully affecting the aquatic life, including fish (Gagnaire et al., 2004). Among aquatic pollutants, there exist organic and inorganic compounds such as combustible substances, petroleum products, phenol, textile dyes and heavy metals. Among inorganic contaminants, heavy metals are the prominent ones (Jadhavet al., 2010). Fish are more susceptible to the harmful impacts of pollutants and serve as an excellent tool for understanding the health status of aquatic ecosystem (Donohue et al., 2006).
The purpose of this study is to discover why and how people and water are connected, and what significant meaning it has to people. This dissertation involves the study of the history and influence of water features in the design of built forms and the role of water as a complimentary element so as to holistically form a restorative
Currently, under the pressure of population growth rate accelerated and economic development needs, many exploitable resources depleted and many parts of the marine environment pollution caused alarming more serious damage. The impact of human activities include
This does not reveal the impact of chemical pollution on the aquatic environment because of potential synergistic/antagonistic effects of complex mixtures of chemical pollutants. It represents a major challenge in current eco-toxicological research by identifying a suitable biomarker of toxicity. (Cheung et al., 2007). Many parameters have been investigated to assess disturbances of various physiological functions linked to chemical exposure (Van der Oost et al., 2003). The role of antioxidant systems is to protect the cells from this oxidative stress through , measuring the components of the antioxidant defense system to determine the exposure of organism to pollutant (Bilbao et al., 2010).
An aquatic ecosystem is a community of organisms and their interactions in a water environment. An aquatic ecosystem consists of a large diversity of life, including fish and reptiles along with microscopic organisms such as bacteria and fungi. There are two fundamental sorts of aquatic ecosystem: freshwater ecosystem and marine ecosystem. Freshwater environment are a group of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. They consist of lakes, rivers, streams, springs, and wetlands.
Chemicals like nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in certain concentration might disrupt aquatic ecosystem. Eutrophication of inland water bodies has become synonymous with the deterioration of water quality, which interferes with most of its beneficial uses. Nowadays, many human activities (anthropogenic activity) are mainly responsible for distortion of the ecosystem which alarms danger zone of water