According to Ali Akbar Khansir (2012) the exact nature of help or support depends on the nature of learners, their reason for writing, and type of writing. In this approach, students are given sufficient time to write, and rewrite, to discover what they want to say and to consider intervening feedback from the teacher and peer as they attempt to bring expression closer to intention in successive drafts. The teacher intervenes throughout the composing process, rather than reacting only to the final draft. The writer is the centre of attention throughout the process and that's the reason why this approach is also called learner-centred approach. Seow (1995) (as cited in Ali Akbar Khansir (2012) argues that the process approach to teaching writing comprises four basic stages such as planning, drafting, revising, and editing.
Concept maps begin with a main idea (or concept) and then branch out to show how that main idea can be broken down into specific topics. Used as a learning and teaching technique, concept mapping visually illustrates the relationships between concepts and ideas. Often represented in circles or boxes, concepts are linked by words and phrases that explain the connection between the ideas, helping students organize and structure their thoughts to further
Phonemes, on the other hand, are minimal distinctive linguistic sounds of a language that cannot be broken up into successive units: each phone in a string of phones corresponds to exactly one phoneme on the underlying level (Giegerich 32). They are non-predictable, independent sounds which change the meanings of words and “contest” against each other in contrastive distribution. Insert examples here This illustration highlights that the phonological structure of a language involves two levels. The first level is concrete which involves the surface realizations of a phoneme; intrinsically, the actual pronunciation or utterance which are the allophones. Whereas, the second level is the psychological, abstract sound category, the phonemes which are never
The paper consists of introduction, literature review part, methodology (textbook, target audience, framework, procedure subsections), implications and conclusion. Literature Review In this part of the paper some background information about profiling vocabulary in second language learning will be introduced. Moreover, the literature about frameworks for ESL/EFL textbooks review and evaluation will be observed. Then, the gap will be identified, according to the purpose of current project. Profiling vocabulary Vocabulary profiling is a method that profiles learner’s corpora in order to explore vocabulary features in terms of collocation and frequency.
Flavell L.,R. (1992) define an idiom as an anomaly of language and a unique linguistic element whose meaning is most likely not connected with the meaning of separate words which form it. They point out that “although it is in form of a phrase, it has many of the characteristics of a single word”(Flavell L,R 1992:6). Their meaning often depends on the context, in one the idiom can be understood literally and in another it can convey entirely different message. Moreover, Baker (1992) draws attention to the fact that idioms disallow any deviation in form unless someone is deliberately attempting to be humorous or is trying to play on words.
Compounding consists in the combination of two or more roots to form a new word. Compound word does have its own characteristics Compound words behave grammatically and semantically as single words. There is also no affixes usually occur between their component elements. Some of the examples are bathrooms, school, and buses. However, there is the exception for some words like passersby, brother-in-law and courts-martial.
When they are scanning, they move their eyes to find specific words, numbers or phrases. Begin by asking students to identify differences between skimming and scanning. If it is not mentioned, add the idea that scanning often comes before skimming. For example, scanning can be used to determine if a resource has the information you are looking for. Once the resource is scanned, it can then be skimmed for more detail.
The questionnaire was created based from the questionnaires given to the students to know the teacher’s perception towards the student’s motivation and attitude towards second language learning. 3.4 Data Collection This section will discuss on how the data will be analyzed. The data are collected through questionnaires. 3.4.1 Questionnaires The questionnaire given to the subjects was to determine and identify the subjects’ type of motivation and attitude towards second language learning. The data were collected and tabulated in a table form.
• In modern English, it is very usual to use prepositions or adverbs after certain verbs so as to get a variety of meanings. Such combinations behave as single units. The meaning of a combination is independent of separate elements that constitute it. The meaning of combination cannot be predicated from the meanings of the verb and the particle in isolation. • The inflection of verb-particle combination goes regularly with the lexical verb.
Documentation of Students’ Works The researcher will use writing test as the instrument of gathering information about students grammatical errors in composing descriptive text. The steps of the test are asking the sample to write the descriptive text by the theme which is chosen by the researcher. 2. Interview Questions The interview will be given after the researcher finished analysing the students’ error. The researcher will select some students as representative in the interview session.