Essay On Prosthetic Heart Valve

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Bioprosthetic valves used in heart valve replacement generally offer functional properties that are more similar to those of native valves. Implantation of prosthetic cardiac valves to treat hemodynamically significant aortic or mitral valve disease has become increasingly common. Replacement of diseased valves with prosthetic heart valves reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with native valvular disease, but it comes at the expense of risking complications related to the implanted prosthetic device. Blood flowing in and out of the heart must pass through the heart valves. The valves allow the blood to flow through the valves, but prevent the occurrence of backflow. Prosthetic heart valves can be mechanical or biological. Mechanical heart valves are composed of metals such as stainless steel, titanium or ceramic material. Biological heart valves are taken from human donor or animal tissue. Prosthetic heart…show more content…
A catheter is inserted into the vein in the arm, leg or chest and threaded through the vain until it reaches a larger vein near the heart. Venous catheters are used to give long-term medicine or large amounts of blood or fluid to the patients. Most catheters are composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), polyurethane, polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride. Teflon catheters have been associated with fewer infectious complications than the other materials used. Catheters are usually coated with an antimicrobial or antiseptic agent such as chlorhexidine or rifampin. This is to prevent adhesion of biological molecules and reduce the risk of infection and other complications such as thrombosis. Despite this, venous catheters may cause endothelial inflammation or damage, ultimately leading to thrombosis. A thrombosis formation leads to the obstruction of the catheter tip but usually does not occlude the vein or artery in which the catheter is

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