Theory Of Ethnomathematics

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The prevailing notion about mathematics is that it is a universal objective of human knowledge, independent of human consciousness, and culture free (D’ Ambrosio, 1994; Arismendi-Pardi, 1999). Shirley (2001) and Arismendi-Pardi (1999) further argued that mathematics instruction was entirely based upon a Western mathematical model of content, structure, and algorithms and despite revisions and reforms of the mathematics program, it still remained largely centered upon western patterns. However, in recent years, there has been a growing field of research in the history and philosophy of mathematics that calls for the humanization and indigenization of mathematical knowledge, that is, the field of ethnomathematics.
The term “ethnomathematics”
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Simply, it is the field of study of the interaction between mathematics and culture (Arismendi-Pardi, 1999). D’ Ambrosio pointed out that ethnomathematics is important in building up a civilization that rejects inequity, arrogance, and bigotry (as cited in Arismendi-Pardi, 1999).
Rosa & Orey (2011) further described ethnomathematics as a “study of mathematical concepts embedded in cultural practices and recognizes that all cultures and all people develop unique methods and sophisticated explications to understand and to transform their own realities” (p. 6). It is a study of how people in certain cultural groups develop techniques to answer and understand their environment in response to problems, struggles, and endeavors for human survival (D’Ambrosio, 2001; as cited by Rosa & Rey, 2011).
Generally, ethnomathematics aims to draw from the cultural experiences and practices of individual learners, the communities, and the society at large and use them as vehicles not only to make mathematics learning more meaningful, but, also more importantly, to provide learners with the insights of mathematical knowledge embedded in their social and cultural
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Constructivists pointed out that having a constructivist classroom and learning activities encourage the interactions of the students’ prior and new learning and understanding that leads to new knowledge that is applicable in situations in, or outside of, school activities.

Cognitive Domain of Learning The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of the intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual activities and skills (Bloom, 1964). Six of the major categories arranged from the simplest behavior to the most complex are the following:
1. Knowledge: The ability to recall data or information.
2. Comprehension: The ability to understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. The ability to state a problem in one's own words.
3. Application: The ability to use concept in a new situation or unprompted use of abstraction. It is the ability to apply what was learned in the classroom into novel situation in the
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