Finally, the project manager must prepare for change within a project and must retain a level of connection with contacts and leads. Change is the only constant in life and every project leader must learn to deal with the rapidly changing and demanding world
Palmer, Dunford and Akin identified a number of action steps which must be prioritized in order to erect a change plan. Firstly, the problem must be identified. According, to Palmer, Dunford, and Akin, “an individual in the corporation must become knowledgeable of the issue to be rectified” (Palmer, Dunford, Akin, 2009, pg. 194). An employee, preferably an individual in top management must recognized a problem exist, thus, undertaking the necessary actions to attenuate the
The resources necessary for management are; human, physical and financial factors. Organizing therefore ensures that different roles and responsibilities are clearly outlined within the organization (Daft, 1997). Staffing Staffing is a management that involves the allocation of responsibilities and tasks to different employees within an organization. Tasks are allocated to individuals carefully after consideration of their abilities to complete them successfully (Daft, 1997). Directing Leading employees towards the achievement of set goals and objectives of a company is directing.
These are doing the right projects and doing projects right. The first set is basically influenced by external environmental factors whilst the next is greatly induced by internal organizational characteristics (Copper, 1999, p. 115-116). The organizational antecedents are many but for the purpose of this study, organizational complexity and size, financial resources, and union impacts on innovation adoption will be
Environment Planning involves external factors like trends and markets and internal factors like infrastructure and personnel. The STEEPLE analysis for organization and shows all the forces affecting organisational change. An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the environmental, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts when deciding whether to proceed with a project. External assessment involves identifies the change drivers social, political, economic, legislative, technological, globalization and industry-related outside factors that might detract from company performance.
Let us start in analyzing how emotions and moods are applied in the selection process of organizations. Industries apply emotions and moods in their selection process by assessing every individual’s Emotional Intelligence (EI) especially if the job requires a high degree of social interaction. It is proven through rigorous research that persons with relatively higher EI tend to be more successful than those who had lower EI percentages. Also in line with selection, emotions and moods can similarly applied to decision making because as we know organizations are led by people who, now and then make crucial decisions that will certainly affect the future of the company. Research have greatly shown that emotions and moods have a strong direct relationship to decision making, proving that positive emotions bring about sound decisions and that persons that exhibit this emotions tend to have good use of heuristics or rules of thumb and come up with swift decisions.
Contemporary management involves many aspects of management. These aspects include planning, leading, organising and controlling operations to achieve certain organisational goals. When comparing different management levels it is evident that at all levels emphasise the importance of using resources effective and responsibly. Managers should be able to build their own as well as their subordinates’ skills, regarding decision making, monitoring information and supervising personnel are which are essential to success. Managers have great responsibilities, these responsibilities include managing a diverse work force, maintaining a competitive edge, behaving ethically and using emerging technologies.
Weber’s bureaucratic principles states that an organization should have written rules, hierarchy of authority, system of task relationships and fair evaluation and reward. Refer to Figure 4 below. Explaining Weber’s bureaucratic principles, authority should be clearly defined as this would allow the managers to supervise and control their subordinates in an organization. Rules and regulations should be clearly specified in form of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) to ensure that activities are performed in a particular manner which will facilitate coordination. Position and duties should be clearly specified, this would allow employees to know what is expected of them based on their expertise.
Conversely, the behavior of both the bureaucratic public and private enterprises is reinforced by the behavior of the traditional society. In such a traditional society, to change societal behavior requires first to transform the behavior of the bureaucratic state. Tension arises between bureaucracies and people in them. Bureaucracies through their control systems achieve goals by maintaining order and stability at all costs. Yet, the bureaucratic control systems are operated by people who also have a need to create to achieve goals and risk change and instability in order to grow.
This is the stage where the project plan from the plan phase is put into execution as found by. During project execution, it is important for the project management team to ensure that proper and effective communication is achieved among the workers of the project. It is through effective communication and relations that will help project management team to create teamwork within the organization. Teamwork will help project management team to perform various activities of the project effective and ensure project development is completed within the time allocation. Thus, effective downward, upwards and horizontal communication must be enforced during project development process.
He stresses that all employees should be aware of a need for change from the status quo and take actions based on awareness of change and commit to the effort until new standards are rooted in the organization. Lewin “views behavior as a dynamic balance of forces working in opposing directions. Driving