Critical Summary #3: First Nations Perspectives In Chapter eight of Byron Williston’s Environmental Ethics for Canadians First Nation’s perspectives are explored. The case study titled “Language, Land and the Residential Schools” begins by speaking of a public apology from former Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper. He apologizes for the treatment of “Indians” in “Indian Residential Schools”. He highlights the initial agenda of these schools as he says that the “school system [was] to remove and isolate [Aboriginal] children from the influence of their homes, families, traditions and cultures, and to assimilate them[…]” (Williston 244). By doing this, colonial Canadians assumed that aboriginal cultural and spiritual beliefs were invalid in relation to European beliefs (244). The problem with ridding the First Nations Peoples of their languages, as Williston points out is to “deprive them of the sense of place that has defined them for thousands of years” (245). The private schooling system was an attack on First Nations identities, and their identity is rooted in “a respect for nature and its processes” (245). …show more content…
While many environmental ethicists argue for the intervention and replanting of trees and relocating of species, First Nations perspectives believe that is not the way to deal with nature. Aboriginals have, as Bruce Morito highlights in his article titled “The ‘Ecological Indian’ and Environmentalism” a “sound and sustainable environmental ethic, painstakingly worked out over the course of thousands of years occupying this land” (238). To erase their language as the residential school system has is to erase the environmental ethic that Aboriginals have
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Over the past few decades, there has been many distinct perspectives and conflicts surrounding the historical context between the Indigenous peoples in Canada and the Canadian Government. In source one, the author P.J Anderson is trying to convey that the absolute goal of the Indian Residential School system in Canada has been to assimilate the Indian nation and provide them with guidance to “ forget their Indian habits”, and become educated of the “ arts of civilized life”, in order to help them integrate into society and “become one” with their “White brethren”. It is clearly evident throughout the source that the author is supportive of the Indian residential school system and strongly believes that the Indian residential School System
Losing one’s cultural knowledge, and therefore the reality of their culture, allows others to have control over their collective and individual consciousness as well as their destiny. In this case, it is clear that the United States government has had the dominant relationship over the Native
Essay Outline The human race that inhabited the lands earlier than anyone else, Aboriginals in Canada had conquered many obstacles which got them to what they are today. In the past, Canadian Aboriginals have dealt with many gruesome issues that primarily involved the Canadians opposing them or treating them like ‘‘wards.’’ The Indian Act is a written law which controls the Indian’s lives and it is often amended several times to make Indian lives either peaceful or cruel but especially, cruel. Aboriginals found the Indian Act a massive problem in their lives due to it completely controlling them and how they lived on their reserve.
Additionally under the Indian act, first nations people do not own their own land. They don’t enjoy the same property rights as most Canadians do. First nations live on land that is “a tract of land, the legal title which is vested in Her Majesty.” Absence of property rights is a disaster for first nations communities because it’s hard to do business when people can’t earn equity on a house or use it as collateral to borrow money. It’s hard to create a thriving community when people can’t hand down wealth to their children.
There has long been significant historiographical and popular controversy about the conditions experienced by students in the residential schools. While day schools for First Nations, Metis and Inuit children always far outnumbered residential schools, a new consensus emerged in the early 21st century that the latter schools did significant harm to Aboriginal children who attended them by removing them from their families, depriving them of their ancestral languages, through sterilization, and by exposing many of them to physicalleading to sexual abuse by staff members, and other students, andenfranchising them forcibly.
Native Americans in Canadian society are constantly fighting an uphill battle. After having their identity taken away in Residential Schools. The backlash of the Residential Schools haunts them today with Native American people struggling in today 's society. Native Americans make up five percent of the Canadian population, yet nearly a quarter of the murder victims. The haunting memories of Residential Schools haunt many Native Americans to this day.
One way that the Indigenous studies requirement would aid in combating racism is through diminishing harmful stereotypes that surround Indigenous peoples. According to Maclean’s, “one in three prairie residents believe that many racial stereotypes are accurate” and that 52% of prairie residents also agree that “Aboriginals’ economic problems are mainly their fault” (Macdonald, 2015) in a poll conducted by the Canadian Institute for Identities and Migration. Canada has had a long history of racism against and the dehumanization of Indigenous peoples, including but not limited to the residential school system and the more recent issue of the high rates of Indigenous children in Child and Family Services (CFS). It is estimated that 150,000 Indigenous children were placed into residential schools from 1874 to 1996 (Fee, 2012) and it is believed 6,000 of these children died while attending, although this number is difficult to determine due to the government ceasing recordings of deaths in residential schools around 1920. Indigenous children were taken from their homes, from their parents and from their way of life to be put into schools that were meant to rid them of their Indigenous culture and assimilate
Imagine being ripped apart from family members, culture, tradition, and labelled a savage that needs to be educated. Imagine constantly facing punishment at school for being one’s self. Unfortunately, these events were faced head on for many First Nations people living in Canada in the late 20th century. These First Nations people were the victims of an extensive school system set up by the government to eradicate Aboriginal culture across Canada and to assimilate them into what was considered a mainstream society.
The indigenous people are literally crashing into the buildings produced by the colonizing culture, “Look out! Bob shouts. There are Indians flying into the skyscrapers and falling on the sidewalk.” (King 63) and it adequately represents the lack of adaptability of the Native Canadians. Thomas King taps again into the effects of colonialism and notions the indigenous people as uneducated and an untamed species.
The indigenous people have a long and proud history, including the rich cultural and spiritual traditions. However, many of these traditions have been changed or even disappeared after the arrival of the European settlers. Forced introduction of European culture and values, Aboriginal community, indigenous land being deprived, and the imposition of a period of governance outside the pattern of the beginning of a cycle of social, physical and spiritual destruction. You can see the effects of today. Some of the effects include poverty, poor health, and drug abuse.
“Kill the Indian in him, and save the man.”, said Richard Henry Pratt. This belief is redolent of the treatment of Native Americans within indian schools. Indian Schools used gentrification as their method of eliminating Native American culture. “ ...long braids worn by indian boys were cut off ... the children were given new ‘white names’...traditional native foods abandoned...forbidden to speak their native languages…”, all aspects that indicated any native american culture were abandoned.
Richard Wagamese brings to light the troubles of aboriginals living in Northern Canada in his book Indian Horse. Wagamese demonstrates the maltreatment aboriginals have faced at the hands of the Zhaunagush and their residential schools. The disgusting truth of the treatment of aboriginals in Canada is shown through recovering alcoholic, Saul Indian Horse, who recounts his life from the time he lived in the bush with his native family, the Anishinabeg, to the the time he checked into The New Dawn Treatment Centre. Seen through Saul’s eyes, the Canadian government captures and transports native children to residential schools. Not only are these children stripped from their native way of life, they are placed in an environment that eerily resembles an internment camp.
One of the worst punishments in residential schools was for speaking their own language. The use of residential schools on First Nations has led to substantial loss of the indigenous languages, therefore, causing further cultural losses to First Nations people. One
In Knoph’s “Sharing our Story with All Canadians”, Knoph emphasizes the effects of propaganda on the First Nation by describing the “colonizing gaze to depict Aboriginal culture to be inferior” (Knoph 89), showing that the aboriginals were brainwashed to believe they had to adapt to the newfound culture. The narrator speaks of the uniform brainwashing of minority groups in order to appeal to western culture; “in the face of a crass white world we has erased so much of ourselves and sketched so many cartoons characters of white people over-top the emptiness inside” (Maracle 158), revealing that the heritage of the older generations will soon be completely forgotten. Maracle chose to implement the idea of brainwashing into the story to place emphasis on the importance of carrying on traditions to remember the roots instead of becoming a one indifferent
The TRC’s “The History” author appeals to logos through the use quantitative findings. The use of logical evidence from the collection of testimonials made by former residential school students is an effective way to aid the persuasion of a reader. Throughout “The History”, the author describes the memories of known First Nations peoples Frederic Ernest Koe, Marlene Kayseas, Lily Bruce and many others. In addition, the author quotes Vitaline Elsie Jenner’s use of ‘kaya nakasin’ (TRC, 2015, p.38) in describing her experience with residential school. The author’s example that contains the use native language reaffirms his credibility and detailed knowledge of the