(Ajayi, 2017) The majority of respondents believe that the waste prevention and minimization will be a major problem in the construction industry in future and that there are currently financial rewards to be gained from minimizing, preventing and recycling waste. It is clear that waste minimization can be carried out quiteet easily once minimization is considered at an early stage and it linked in to the contract
Preparing for re-use The construction materials generated should be re-used on site or salvaged for re-use to the greatest extent possible. Disposal should only be considered as the ultimate alternative. Some examples under this initiative are shown in Table1. Re-use of construction waste generated from renovation and demolition activities using the deconstruction
5, series 2014 or Implementing Guidelines on the Integration of Gulayan sa Paaralan, Solid Waste Management and Tree Planting emphasizes the greening program of the national government. The implementing guidelines on Solid Waste Management aims to preserve and conserve nature and promote climate change awareness. It also dictates that SWM must be implemented in all public elementary and secondary schools nationwide through its YES – O organizations. Hence, as part of the agency it is required that each member has to support and practice the waste management principles embodied in DepEd Order No. 5 such as minimization of waste, segregation at source, reduction, recycling, reuse and
The second phase is the presentation, collection and movement of municipal solid waste. There are two options to manage the BMW which are on site or off site managements. On-site management is related to home composting or communal composting while off-site management is presented on the management in waste stream. BMW can be presented in bagged waste fraction or separate fractions. This separation fraction can be collected direct from household or from the collection receptacles in close proximity to household.
When the waste incinerator is built, the government may think that it is not that crucial to reduce waste or to do better in recycling as they may think the waste can be burnt and hence the pressure to the landfills has already been lessened. Williams(2011) indicates that the government refusing to meditate the alternatives like adopting a multi-faceted approach that includes modern technologies such as anaerobic digestion to mainly deal with food waste. In facts, food waste is a major constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong. Of the 10,159 tonnes of municipal solid waste landfilled each day in 2015, one third was food waste. (EPD, 2015) Accordingly, even when the waste problem is urgent, the government do not seriously contemplate of adopting an approach to reduce the waste that has to be sent to the landfills, do not expect the government will deal conscientiously with reducing waste in the future.
Another challenge that was faced during food waste management is the availability of waste collection centre. Waste collection almost covers all communities in urban areas but only about 66% of the populations in rural areas are covered. Thus, the solid waste including food waste is being dumped on the streets and drains. In addition, many of the people will burned the solid waste. Thus, this contributes to the air pollution problem and disease spreading problem (Samsudin and Don,
2.1 Waste Management Waste management has become one of the major problems for government and city authorities. The present way of life especially in urban centres produces enormous amounts of waste, and most people want to preserve their lifestyle, while government is also aiming at protecting the environment and promoting public health. Solid waste management is a discipline that is associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, reusing and recovery and disposal of solid waste in a manner that is in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation of nature, aesthetics and environmental considerations in general (Tchobanoglous, 1993). The indiscriminate
McGeorge & Zou (2012) researchers also encompass that as the number of construction project is increasing in the world, the shortcomings in the waste, quality and construction management is also being highlighted. The waste of the construction projects is normally disposed of in eth landfills. This not only increases the cost of the contractor but also contributes in the reduced area of landfills. Due to the poor waste management practices, 1.2 million of money is wasted in every project. The construction industry largely faces the problem of construction waste due to the lack of poor craftsmanship and poor training of the staff.
Solid waste management is an emerging issue as the world’s municipalities become increasingly affected by the huge generation of waste. According to the UNEP (2010), Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated worldwide an estimated 1.7 – 1.9 billion metric tons of waste. Rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic development are responsible for increased volumes of municipal solid waste. As a result, municipalities - typically the level of government responsible for waste management in cities - must provide effective and efficient solid waste services to their inhabitants. They often face problems beyond the ability of municipal authorities to tackle the problem (Sujauddin et al, 2008).