Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19). According to her, gender identity is a signifier for human beings; it can be used in the process of forming individuals’ identity. Thus, it becomes a demand to study gender identity. Gender identity is a personal inner sense of self as a male or female. Psychological theory of gender identity reveals a new postmodern problematic issue related to gender identity: gender identity as a personal feeling, can be changed, transformed and masqueraded.
What are the factors that determine gender? [factors determining gender] Several factors may determine gender but the obvious ones are upbringing, context and society. These in turn, may affect EFL success, learning outcomes and expectations. To start with social roles or else stereotypes, Holmes (1992:172) has susggested that women are appointed to ‘the role of modelling correct behaviour in the community’ and they are assigned a series of tasks involving verbal interaction in private contexts’ (child upbringing). Kramarae (1981:145), on the other hand, states that ‘men specialize in instrumental or task behaviours and women specialize in expressive or social activities’.
This argument states that nature is only responsible for a person’s gender but not in the creation of gender roles. The nurture argument is one that views men and women as equally capable of performing certain tasks. Moreover, social norms such as gender specific colors or activities are due to the culture that a child is raised in. As children move through development they begin to develop different gender roles and gender stereotypes that are influenced by their peers and caregivers
Have you ever realized how society put us in categories, on how we should act according to our gender? Or have you ever watched commercials that actually try to break free from the gender stereotypes? If not then you should pay attention. Gender is something that strongly influences the world around us, whether it influences our behavior or how people treat us, it is still something with great power. Investigating how we are socialized in regards to gender is interesting because it is such a broad topic on how society characterizes everyone by gender.
Member of society have a mindset that agent of socialization is one of the origin that influenced the reinforcement of gender inequality since childhood. What is socialization? In lexical definition, socialization, as a lifelong interactive process, contains individual’s culture learning that is in compliance with social norms and roles to integrate into community (Socialization, n.d.). Childhood is the most influential period of socialization which agents of socialization impact the way children behave that related with social norms. Gender can be effected social behavior of each individual.
Culture: The social learning theory suggests that an individual figures out their gender identity by observing and imitating gender-like behaviors from others through a reward/punishment system as a child. Psychological: Gender schema 's are developed from an early age, placing male/female characteristic 's into groupings/concept categories. Knowing ones ' gender identity and what category 's of characteristics they should follow to fit that gender role is important psychologically because it helps an individual make sense of the world and their place in it. Gender V. Gender roles V. Gender identity Gender is a blanket concept in which the roles and identities of female/maleare sub-categorized. Gender roles define how females/males are expected to behave.
A study done by William R. Doyle, an assistant professor of higher education at Vanderbilt University claims, that the number of women in the workforce affects the size of the wage gap. He concludes that as the number of women in the workforce rose, therefore, the gap decreased due to more women comprising a part of the economy. Another reason that the gender wage gap got smaller over time was due to congress enacting the Equal Pay Act. This is because throughout history the government, although unsuccessfully, have tried to get rid of or lessen the gender pay gap. According to Paul Weiler a professor of law at Harvard Law school, during president Kennedy’s time in office Kennedy encountered problems with the gender pay gap and imposed a ban on it he called the Equal Pay act of 1963.
Gender Role Development and the Effects on Children Children’s development is very important for them to identify themselves and learn about who they are. Gender roles creates a bit of a conflict because it teaches children at a very young age what they should and shouldn’t wear, what sports or activities are deemed acceptable, and they should act based on their gender. Most kids grow up to believe in this gender stereotype that girls are so supposed to act and dress a certain way and the same with boys. By breaking these social norms, it would be showing kids at a young age that they do not have to conform to these schemas. Gender roles are designed to put boys and girls into two different categories.
GENDER Refer to (Schein, 1989) states that both men and women, not just one. However, depending on the biological term. But the social role of gender determined by contemporary social roele since these are determined by culture. There is so much diversity among women, although they will bring diversity to the leadership, according to Schein (1989), eventhough a lot of research has proven the difference between female and male. It is believed that the difference between women and men are less.
From birth, children learn gender stereotypes and roles from their parents and environment. In a traditional view, males learn to manipulate their physical and social environment through physical strength or dexterity, while girls learn to present themselves as objects to be viewed. Social constructionists claim for example that gender-segregated children 's activities create the appearance that gender differences in behavior reflect an essential nature of male and female behavior. Gender role theory “treats these differing distributions of women and men into roles as the primary origin of sex-differentiated social behavior, their impact on behavior is mediated by psychological and social processes” According to Gilbert, gender roles arose from correspondent inference, meaning that general labor division was extended to gender roles. Socially constructed gender roles are considered to be hierarchical and characterized as a male-advantaged gender hierarchy by social constructionists.