TASK 1 What are the social determinants of health and how these determinants are linked to Inequality in health outcomes between different social groups? The social determinants of health ranges from factors such as the wider socio-economic context as seen in fig 1, inequality; poverty; social exclusion; socio-economic position; income; public policies; health services; employment; education; housing; transport; the built environment; health behaviours or lifestyles; social and community support networks and stress. The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people live and work and these circumstances are shaped by economics, policies and politics. It is the duty of the government tackle this social determinant of health and finds a solution to create a society which is equal and just. Fig 1.
Before we look at the different Social/Psychological Determinants of Health it is important firstly to define what a social determinant of health is. According to the World Health Organization (2017) “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.” These conditions are as a result of a wide range of factors that are ultimately governed by the way in which money, power and specific resources are shared at different levels including those at global, national and local levels. We have all been a part of and will experience different social determinants of health throughout our lives but it is the standard at which we experience these determinants that will ultimately lead onto them affecting our health or ultimately leaving us unaffected. The Social Determinants of Health which I am going to examine include • Education • Unemployment • Stress • Living Conditions • Cultural Norms. These Social Determinants of Health may all relate to each other in some ways but may also have no relation to each other at all.
Another factor is culture. Culture can be very important when determining what to do based on beliefs and practices. 4.What are reasons for disparities in access to health care? There can be many reasons for inequalities in health care. One being the economic status of the individual or family.
Health is a fundamental human right and a worldwide social goal and it is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans it is the general conditions of person’s mind and body, usually meaning to be free from illness and injury. Health is necessary for the realization of basic human needs and to attain the status of better quality of life (WHO 1979). Health is a major determinant of human capital. If the quality of human capital is not maintained, physical capital and natural resources cannot be properly utilized and growth could neither be sustained nor be qualitative.
Social determinants of health are not fixed and include things such as types of housing and environment people live in, the accessibility of education and health services, income level and employment type. These factors can all influence a person’s lifestyle decisions and health. Inequalities produced through social conditions bring about unequal and unjustified health outcomes for different social backgrounds. Health inequalities tend to be measured along a social gradient. Research has shown time and time again that there is a social gradient in health, which runs from the top to the bottom of the socioeconomic spectrum (Moss, 1995).
Undeniably, many social factors had penetrated into our society and became globe issues, such as the aging population, they mainly affect the major working class who were the adult groups; most of them may need to take care of their family and also taken the economic burden of their parents’ family. Many health problems were appeared from the stressful environments and the norms of societies. In this essay we are going to determine how the social factors affect people’s conditions which mainly focus on how people’s perceptions are changed based on the society conceptualization. This essay is composed of three parts, we will discuss the definition of health and how the gender affect to health, second part the impact from economic position.”
In twenty- first century, medical field is focused on the health problems of a person as a whole entity rather than in parts. Good health is the essence of a balanced relationship between mind, body, and social and physical environment. What is the reason behind the sickness of an individual, what is the experience as being sick, and how this coping mechanism takes place? All of these questions cannot be answered without considering the prevailing social and cultural expectations of behavior. Nowadays to address the health disorders, the concern is about ‘problems in living’ in the form of social, psychological and cultural influences in addition to biological, physiological and pathological factors (Cockherham, 1986).
Health is considered a basic and dynamic force within daily life. The World Health Organisation (1948) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Although dated this definition of health is predominantly used to date within literature, however, does receive criticism for being idealistic (Green 2015). As a discipline public health protects, preserves and promotes the health of people (Hanlon et al. 2012).
Health is a fundamental human right and a worldwide social goal and it is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans it is the general conditions of person’s mind and body, usually meaning to be free from illness and injury. Health is necessary for the realization of basic human needs and to attain the status of better quality of life (WHO 1979). The health is a major determinant of human capital and if the quality of human capital is not maintained, physical capital and natural resources cannot be properly utilized and growth could neither be sustained nor be qualitative. The health of the people depends upon the utilization of health care services and the level of health status of a person is a robust reflection
Due to the complex nature of health and quality, there have been various variable indicators proposed by multiple committees, organizations and individuals. For the purpose and context of this paper the components of quality healthcare that will be taken under consideration are; Access, Technical Competence and Equity. Access to service refers to the ability of health consumers to obtain health services. This is influenced by finances, geography and culture. In terms of financial access, the national Health insurance scheme is in place to ensure the poor can have access to healthcare.