Ideas supported by research are carried forward. Sometimes an element of an idea is unfathomable so it is recast. A theory by Charles Robert Darwin, a geologist and biologist, called “the theory of natural selection” puts to rest all questions about evolution of life and the happenstances around it. It states that a collection of similar individuals that can breed with each other are called species. Evolution, according to Darwin is a “slow and gradual, and endless” process.
In the nineteenth century modern science, which is based on scientific methods, took the place of the appeals to divine and religions. The rapid social change and the great success of natural scientific approaches encouraged people to explore the social world with more systematic, rational and empirical methods which results in the emergency of social science (Benton and Craib, 2001:22). Due to the lack of formalized rules for studying societies, sociologists developed a series of principles for research which could help them explore different social phenomena (Bilton et al, 2002:444). Emile Durkheim, whose conception of sociology was one of the earliest attempts to explain how the society could be studied scientifically, set out his methodological
Since the 17th century, people all over the world have been trying to figure out how society works and the ways in which people are influenced by their society. Traditionally, these questions were answered using superstition and myth (Henslin, 4). The “founding fathers” of sociology -Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber- all broke apart from the traditional ways of thinking and developed their own worldviews. Auguste Comte first coined the term “sociology,” or the process of applying the scientific method in order to discover social laws. He used “positivism,” in which the scientific method is used in the social world, rather than the typical superstition and tradition.
It was totally contrary to the Christian worldview. His theory states that species tend to change, plant and animal species evolved through natural selection. On the other hand, Darwin’s theory seemed controversial due to following reasons: contradiction with the law of physics; prominent scientists who supported creationism; movement of intelligent designers; new evidence found against Darwin’s theory of evolution. MAIN BODY Science and religion had strong ties in England in the 16th century. Revolution made in science field did not conflict with religion, on the contrary, scientific revolution only strengthened ties
The two prominent names: Weber and Durkheim; considered the “founding fathers of Sociology”. Their writing in the late 19th century considered to be revolution and brought profound changes in the modern life. Although, both of these men studied the society, its structure and trends, but their methodology and theoretical approach were different. In the early years of his life, Durkheim was influenced and impressed by the evolutionary perspective of Herbert Spencer and later, with the works of August Comte. Whereas, Weber owed his approach much to the Neo-Kantian Philosophy.
“Becoming human is a project and our task is not so much to discover who we are, as to create ourselves” (Corey, 2013, p.129). As one of the primary existential thinkers, Kierkegaard speculated that human discontent must be overcome through inside knowledge. Nietzsche additionally built up the hypothesis of existentialism by presenting the idea of free will and personal moral obligation. Otto Rank was among the primary existential therapists to effectively seek after the dicipline train and by the mid 20th century, psychologist Paul Tillich and Rollo May brought existential therapy into the spotlight through their works and research. The prevalent approach started to impact different theories and methods, including the humanistic field, created by Viktor Frankl.
Social Darwinism started in Britain in 1870. Social Darwinism is basically a collection of theories that promotes the idea that that humans compete for existence and those that are more “fit” survive life. They based their theories on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. Some Darwinists believed that the government shouldn’t change human nature by regulating economy or attempting to solve social problems. They promoted competition because they believed that some people, nations, or races were better fit to survive.
Natural selection and Social Darwinism Darwin’s theory of natural selection indicates that there are competitions for survival between animals, and he once applied this theory about competition into human society in his book The descent of man. For this reason, Darwin was sort of one of the founders of Social Darwinism. Nevertheless, he didn’t overemphasize the competition between the same spices, natural selection doesn’t equal to competition.  “The farther of Social Darwinism” is the man called Herbert Spencer, he interpreted the “natural selection” as “survival of the fittest”. People made different interpretations on Social Darwinism and use it on their own purposes.
He believed that complex creatures evolved from different ancestors over time. He noted that random genetic mutations occur within an organism’s genetic code and that mutations are preserved because they age survival. He called this process the natural selection. It is supported by evidence of scientific discipline, geology, genetics and developmental biology. Charles Darwin discovered Darwinism.
Below by looking at its history and by using examples, I aim to assess its contemporary significance in human geography research. History + Background: The history of positivism relates back to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries where two respected philosophers known as Auguste Comte and Moritz Schlick whose studies have influenced its role and understanding in the ‘modern’ world. The name “positivism” derives from the emphasis on the positive sciences that is tested and systematized experience rather that an undisciplined speculation (Encyclopedia.com, 2015). The older positivism proposed by Auguste Comte viewed human history as progressing through three different stages: the religious, the metaphysical, and the scientific. His positivism was presented in a clear distinct manner and arranged in a systematic form that highlighted the core principles