Motivation And Job Satisfaction

1916 Words8 Pages
2.0 Literature Review
1.0 Introduction
At present, motivation and job satisfaction is thought to play a major role in determining the success or failure of an entity, which operates in an ever changing business environment. Hence, given the importance, various individuals had devised a number of theories and thoughts, on the subject matter which is evaluated in the paper.
The motive of this literature review, thus, is to compare and contrast different theories and thinking on both motivation and job satisfaction. Further, the literature review evaluates thinking and theories on labour turnover as well, with the aim of identifying the nature of relationship between motivation, job satisfaction and labour turnover .
2.0 Motivation and Job Satisfaction
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The writer thinks that it is of paramount importance that one should direct attention towards understanding job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, in order to better understand motivation. Hence, the following theories and thinking on job satisfaction and motivation haved been considered.
2.1.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Maslow devised this theory in 1943, with the aim of identifying the dynamics of motivation, which leads to job satisfaction. According to the theory, a framework was devised in a hierarchical manner, (as depicted in figure 1), thus ranking the factors (needs) in ascending order, namely; physiological, safety, social, esteem and self- actualization .
• Psychological Needs
These take the form of basic needs which are aligned with the survival of an individual, such as, food, water, air, and in an organizational sense, compensation.
• Safety related
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Similar criticisms were carried out by Parker (1972) as well .
2.1.3 Locke’s theory on Job Satisfaction
As per this theory formulated by Locke (1976), job satisfaction can be viewed in terms of ‘needs’ and ‘values’. Hence, as per the theory, needs are common to every human being, even though a person might not, at all times, be aware of these needs.
Values, on the flip side, can be different from person to person and can be achieved or gained by individuals, at varying degrees. Locke further elaborated on this phenomenon, thus stating that values could be subjective in nature and that they can be achieved conscious or subconscious manner and that ‘choice’ is determined these values.
As per Locke , the disparity between values and needs contributes towards satisfaction. Hence, these values and needs can be grouped as ‘agent’ and ‘event’ factors, where an agent acts as the cause, thus triggering an event. Hence, agents can be compared with that of hygiene factors and events, motivators, as per Herzberg’s
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