Herzberg Two-Factor Theory

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CHAPTER TWO LITERETURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter summarizes the information from other researchers who have carried out their research in the same field of study. The specific areas covered here are theoretical review, human resource planning objectives, approaches to human resource planning, importance of human resource planning, limitations of human resource planning, employee retention, empirical review and conceptual framework. 2.2 Theoretical Review According to Kerlinger (1979), a theory is a set of interconnected concepts or variables, definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of a phenomenon by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining a natural phenomenon. This section reviews theories on employee retention. 2.2.1 Herzberg Two Factor Theory Frederick Herzberg (1959) two-factor theory is also known as the motivation-hygiene or the dual-factor theory. Herzberg’s theory states that certain factors in the organization related to the contentment of the job which provides satisfying experience for employees while separate set of hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction among employees in the workplace. The former factors are called motivators or satisfiers and include achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, opportunity to do something meaningful, sense of importance, advancement and growth while the former factors are known as hygiene factors such as job security, fringe benefits, salary paid

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