The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
The next level is Understanding or Comprehension. The student should be able to give examples, explain, summarise and discuss the information. They should also be able to make predictions or infer. Thereafter, the student should be able to apply knowledge by interpreting, demonstrating, choosing appropriate actions for simple case studies and adapting the knowledge to new situations. Analysis is showing that one understands how parts relate to a whole.
In other words, students learn by fitting new information together with what they have already known. Ross (2006) stated that constructivist teaching approaches play an important role in developing students’ conceptual understanding and ability to communicate learned ideas. These approaches include teacher encouragement of student independent thinking, creation
ARTICLE POINT OF VIEW 1: NEED ANALYSIS What is need analysis? NA or Need Analysis is a method of making early analysis for the priorities of the syllabus that the course intends to offer and achieve from the student (Long, 2005). This way need analysis helps in framing of questions, subject matter and even test such that the main motive of English Learning can be achieved by the students (Batt, 2008). Need Analysis is a method of gathering information about the student so that his future educational program can be framed as per the needs of learning (Iwai et al., 1999). Berwick (1989) stated that need analysis is actually the collection of information about the identification of problems and limitations and selecting the various methods and
The ability to learn independently is the ultimate goal of meaningful learning. To be able to achieve this, lectures are designed in such a way as to be meaningful for students. So, meaningful learning occurs when the student plays an active role in the learning process and is finally able to decide what to learn and how to learn it Through meaningful learning the students are expected to be better able to recognize and develop all the knowledge they have. In addition, students are also fully aware of the importance of using the various learning resources that surround them, encouraging students to think systematically, critically, responsively. cultivate an active learning ability in students and explore the ability of students and lecturers to jointly develop in a variety of knowledge of skills and experience.
If the learning process was organized formally in school, the goal is to have the changes on students take place in a planned, both in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes in accordance with the demands of the curriculum used. Gets more complex demands of a curriculum, increased complex the demands of the facilities and infrastructure required. Interactions that occur during the learning process even more streamlined and increasing intensity. The interaction is no longer limited to just teachers and students, students with students, but also among students with a message - a message of learning directly. Whether it be through a medium of learning as well as to the source - other learning
This theory was developed by Richard Chase Anderson. It views organized knowledge as an elaborate network of abstract mental structures which represent one's understanding of the world (Ramos, 2012). Schema theorists point out that abstract concepts are best understood after a foundation of concrete, relevant information has been established. Schemata are always organized meaningfully, and as a learner gains experience, it can be added and developed to include more variables and more specifics. In this theory, prior knowledge is essential for the comprehension of new information; therefore, teachers should remind the students of what they already know before introducing new information.
This approach is clearly a constructivist’s approach which encourages different activities where students can reflect, and have an interactive discussion with their teacher. It is about learning acquisition that actually depends on the basic
Education in school is a formal process of learning by which teachers consciously and unconsciously teach manifested and latent curriculums. Manifested curriculums are the intended purpose function that transmits skills as well as values of the educational institutions. It includes teaching how to read, write, etc. The latent function of the educational institutions are those unintended purpose where in a person learn to be part of a large group. In such sense, universality is learned that is the same rules apply to everyone else.