Dornyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom. The Modern Language Journal,78(3), 273-284. doi:10.2307/330107 Gutierrez, K. D. (1992). A comparison of instructional contexts in writing process classrooms with Latino children.
Bachman, L. F., & A.S. Palmer, 1996, Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bailey, D. M., 1996, “Working for washback: A review of the washback concept in language testing”, Language Testing, 13(257-279). Biggs, J., 1995, “Assumptions underlying new approaches to educational assessment”. Curriculum Forum, 4(2), 1-22 Biggs, J., 1996, Testing: To educate or to select?
Then, educators and learners need to adopt a lens which makes them recognize and build translanguging practices in today’s classrooms; in few words continua of biliteracy. The continua of biliteracy provide educators and learners with the opportunity to recognize and use linguistic and cultural diversity of classrooms, allow bringing into focus context, content, media and development of language and remind us that the only way to make sense of school language is to start from what one knows and to integrate it (Hornberger & Link, 2012; Orellana & García,
In particular, Litosseliti and Sunderland developed further the ideas of the ‘discursive practices’ (Fairclough, 1992) of the speech acts subversion and endorsement of a text by a teacher. Their eventual interpretation of the categories endorsement and subversion can be seen in the complete model of gendered discursive practices of teachers in relation to texts. The top level of this working framework represents two possible ‘text types’, the boxes below, the ‘talk around the text’. (2002, p.
- Who are the learners? e.g. the personal information of the learners - Where and when will the course take place? Furthermore, Dudley-Evans & ST. John (1998) propose the concept of needs analysis which are the additions form Hutchinson & Waters (1987) including aspects as follow: - Target needs analysis and objective needs focus on the activities for which English is used. - Wants, means, subjective needs focus on factors that may affect language learning.
Views of Curriculum in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT). According to Bellalem (2008), curriculum in FLT is pondered over as continuum whose ends represent to distinct views: (1) the transmissionist view and (2) the socio-constructivist view. 4.5.1. Transmissionist curriculum. As the name indicates, the essence of this view is the explicit transmission of syllabi and language skills.
Language awareness or metalinguistic awareness refers to knowledge about language an individual has or should have of his native or second language. Myers-Scotton, (2006) states that the term metalinguistic knowledge [emphasis added] has been used in many different ways, but that its basic meaning is getting to know about the abstract character of language. Bialystok (2001a: 127 as cited by Myers-Scotton, 2006) puts it this way, “To the extent that a learner has metalinguistic knowledge, second language acquisition [emphasis added] is facilitated because a language template is available” (p. 23). Language teachers should know what languages are and how they are acquired or learned. Language acquisition and language learning are two different
EU multilingualism strategy to focus on language learning. Retrieved 6 April 2010, from http://www.euractiv.com/en/culture/eu-multilingualism- strategy-focus-language learning/article-170364 Fathman, A. (1975). The relationship between age and second language productive ability. Language Learning, 25,
This essay will critically discuss the Communicative Approach in the English classroom and how the CAPS document addresses the approach. The first paragraph discusses the meaning and reason why the Communicative Approach is necessary. Communication can be found in many different forms, as learners it is one of the most important skills that can be taught in life.The Communicative Language Theory in teaching is a methodology that is accepted worldwide. The methodology connects the theory sections with the practice in teaching a language. Theory states what language is and how a learned.