Conversely, poor oral health can have detrimental consequences on physical and psychological wellbeing. Yet, the high burden of oral diseases represents a widely underestimated public health challenge for almost all countries worldwide. Oral diseases are often hidden and invisible, or they are accepted as an unavoidable consequence of life and ageing. However, there is clear evidence that oral diseases are not inevitable, but can be reduced or prevented through simple and effective measures at all stages of the life course, both at the individual and population levels. Untreated tooth decay is now known to be the most prevalent of the 291 conditions studied between 1990 and 2010 within the frame of the international Global Burden of Disease Study.
In the developing countries, incidence of brain abscess is approximately 8% of the intracranial masses where as it comprises 1-2% in the western countries (2). Though now it is relatively uncommon, it still remains a fatal disease (3, 4) and is still a significant health care problem in the developing countries which is reflected by various studies (5). Before the late 1800s, brain abscess was an almost lethal condition that was
FA and ICGA showed the small radial drusen as areas of hyperfluorescence in the early phase that decreased during the late phase in both FA and ICGA. On the contrary, large drusen showed a hyperfluorescence, in the early phase that increased in the late phase of FA while on ICGA they were hypofluorescent in the early phases with a characteristic hyperfluorescent pattern in the late phases. No characteristic features of CNV were found on either FA or ICGA. (Fig. 7) SD-OCT showed diffuse deposition of hyperreflective material between the RPE and the Bruch’s membrane resulting in diffuse RPE elevation.
Furthermore, there is no clear change in peak position as well as the peaks are found to be quite sharp and intense, which implies the high crystallinity of the prepared powders. A careful analysis of the diffraction patterns shows that there is no trace of copper related phase (metallic copper, cuprous oxide or any binary copper sodium phases) for all CuO:Na+ compositions. This indicates that Na ions were successfully doped into the lattice of Cu sites without affecting the crystal structure of the parent CuO matrix. The radius difference between Cu2+ ion (0.73 Å) and Na+ (1.02 Å) are remarkable but due to the synthesis technique the, Cu2+ ions in the lattice structure can be well replaced by Na ions. The peak position systematically shifts towards lower 2θ values with Na doping (shown in the Fig.
It is this white latex which is vulcanized to form rubber (Navie and Adkins, 2008). However, the rubber tree is prone to a wide range of foliar diseases, which causes yield losses of rubber latex. Colletotrichum leaf disease (CLD) is considered as one of the major foliar diseases that causes declining yields of rubber in Asia (Thambugala and Deshappriya, 2009). According to Bailey and Jeger (1992), Colletotrichum is one of the most common and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi. At present, there have been about 900 species described or assigned to Colletotrichum.
If all of these other contributions to the peak width were zero, then the peak width would be determined solely by the crystallite size and the Scherrer formula would apply. If the other contributions to the width are non-zero, then the crystallite size can be larger than that prophesied by the Scherrer formula, with the "extra" peak width coming from the other factors. The concept of crystallinity can be used to communally describe the effect of crystal size and imperfections on peak
The lichens are widely distributed in almost all the phytogeographical regions of the world. Adequate moisture, light and altitude, unpolluted air and undisturbed substratum often favours luxuriant growth of lichens. By their appearance the lichens can be grouped into three main growth forms, Crustose lichens: The lichen thallus is closely attached to the substratum without leaving any free margin. The thallus usually lacks lower cortex and rhizinae (root like structure). Such lichens have to be collected along with their substratum for the study (Figure 2).
Most of the azo dyes are water soluble and readily to absorb through skin and intake may lead to the risk of cancer and allergic reactions, an irritant for the eyes and extremely dangerous , if inhaled or consumed (Nikulina et al., 1995). For example, Para-phenylene diamine (PPD) also called 1, 4-diamino benezene or 1,4-phenylene diamine, is an aromatic amine, which is a major component of azo dyes. PPD-containing azo dyes are toxic and cause skin irritation, contact dermatitis, chemosis, lacrimation, exopthamlmose, and permanent blindness. Ingestion of PPD products leads to the rapid development of oedema on face, neck, pharynx, tongue and larynx along with respiratory distress. In some cases, it may cause rhabdomyolysis, acute tubular necrosis supervene, vomiting gastritis, hypertension, and vertigo (Macphec et al., 1975; Young H. and Yu J., 1997).
MODS was the commonest cause of death. Conclusion: Renal complications were seen as the commonest complication of malaria. Early diagnosis, treatment specially the fluid management reduces the overall mortality. Key words: Falciparum malaria, Renal complcations, Urinary abnormalities, HypovolemiaMalaria is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite of the anopheles mosquitoes and characterized by fever, splenomegaly, anaemia and chronic relapsing course. It is one of the most important parasitic diseases of the humans affecting hundred and three endemic countries with a population of over 2.5 billion people and causing between one and three million deaths each year worldwide.
Despite the mortalities and morbidity, it is major cause of economic loss through medicines for treatment, monitoring and working hours lost due to sickness. It is caused by Plasmodia species which includes; Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax. Of the four types, P. falciparum is the most lethal strain responsible for multi-organ failure, anaemia, coma, cerebral malaria and death. Malaria Parasite Life Cycle and Cell Growth Plasmodium falciparum is medically the most important malaria parasite. Its life cycle is complex, involving invasive, trophic and replicative forms in the human host and female Anopheles mosquito.