An endospore is a dormant of a bacterial cell. It is a non-reproductive structure that ensures survival of a bacterium through stressful environmental conditions. Unknown #76, using aseptic technique, was inoculated to a nutrient sporulation medium (NSM) plate. This concerns a selective medium that increases the initiation of endospore production. A spore-former would have green-pigmented endospore cells when looked at under the microscope. From the growth on the NSM, I smeared it aseptically to a wet slide. Slide was then left to be air-dried for about 10 minutes. It was important to heat fix the slide using a micro incinerator. The succeeding steps had to be taken with caution because the primary stain, malachite green, is toxic. Under the hood, the slide was covered with a properly cut size of paper towel. The slide was then stained and left to steam with malachite green. It was continuously followed up by applications of the stain so it may remain moist for 10 minutes. The slide was then rinsed and safranin was again used as a counterstain. Using oil immersion objective lens of the microscope, unknown #76 had only reddish-pink cells without any signs of spore formation. Thus the given unknown is a non-spore former. Bacillus subtilis was used for positive control and Escherichia coli for negative control for endospore
As seen in table 1, the theoretical yield was .712 g of C_17 H_19 NO_3. The % yield of this experiment was 7.51 % of C_17 H_19 NO_3. . This low yield can be explained from a poor recrystallization technique combined with potential contamination. Throughout the experiment, the mixture changed color from green, orange, to yellowish lime, and eventually clear. These color changes indicate a chemical change, which show that a reaction had occurred. In the first step when o-vanillin and p-toludine, imine was formed. The color change from green to orange suggests that imine appears as orange colored. In the second step, the addition of sodium borohydride reduced the imine into another derivative, which was yellowish lime color. The solution turned clear when acids and anhydrides was added, which indicated the precipitate were dissolved. However, after refluxing for a while, yellow precipitates begin to form near the top of the flask. It was assumed that the remaining starting material was concentrated from a decrease volume to reappeared in solution. Nevertheless, this may have been a sign of contamination that will negatively affect the entire reaction. This observation later resulted in a yellowish
The purpose of this experiment was to be able to synthesize triphenylmethyl bromide from triphenylmethanol by a trityl carbocation intermediate. During the experiment, 0.100 g of triphenylmethanol was placed into a small test tube. The triphenylmethanol looked like a white powder. Next 2 mL of acetic acid was added to the test tube and the solution turned a cloudy white color. There was a strong odor similar to the smell of vinegar given off. After the solution was heated and the solid dissolved, 0.2 mL of hydrobromic acid was added to the test tube. The solution turned a bright yellow color after the hydrobromic acid was added. The solution was heated in a hot water bath for 5-10 minutes and then let cool. After heating, the
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone. In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
Running the reaction. The mixture in the 5-ml conical vial containing the tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and anthranilic acid was heated on an aluminum block to 140° C. Once the mixture started to boil the prepared mixture of isopentyl nitrite was added to the 5-ml conical vial through the top of the condenser using a pasture pipette. The solution continued to boil for 25 more minutes until a
The objective of the Unknown White Compound experiment was to investigate the compound’s physical and chemical properties to correctly identify and then synthesize the compound. The first step was to test the compounds solubility and create a solution with distilled water. Next, a pH test was conducted by testing the unknown compound using pH paper. Following, the flame test was used to determine the cation and the ion test was used to determine the anion, which concluded the compound to mostly be potassium nitrate. Next, a conductivity probe and pH probe were used to confirm the unknown compound to be potassium nitrate. The final step was to synthesize potassium nitrate using silver nitrate and potassium chloride. The experiments listed above concluded the unknown white compound to be potassium nitrate.
The purpose of this experiment was to identify given Unknown White Compound by conducting various test and learning how to use lab techniques. Tests that are used during this experiment were a flame test, ion test, pH test, and conductivity test. The results drawn from these tests confirmed the identity of the Unknown White Compound to be sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2) because there were no presence of ions and sodium has a strong persistent orange color. The compound then will be synthesized with the compounds Na2CO3 and HC2H3O2 to find percent yield. Weighed 1 gram of NaC2H3O2 and mixed it with ionized water. Boiled 12 mL of 1.0M Acetic Acid added into a beaker containing the sodium carbonate on a hot plate until all the liquid is evaporated
Tn 4351 was originally isolated from bacteroides fragilis  . The transposon was successfully introduced into Cytophaga succinicans, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Flexibacter canadiansis, Flexibacter strain SFI and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides by conjugation . Tn 4351carries two antibiotic resistance gene. One of the codes for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin which is expressed in bactroides but not in E.Coli. The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides. The transposon of Tn4351 was originally detected in E. coli which carried an unstable chimeric plasmid, pSS-2. The mobilization of pSS-2 from onestrain of E. coli
Melanotan II is a lab synthesized peptide hormone that imitates melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a hormone that naturally occurs in the human body). Alpha-MSH (also referred to as α-MSH or alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSHs) stimulates the melanogenesis; the process by which the skin and hair darkening pigments are produced in mammals. In vitro administration of Melanotan II has been observed to have excellent portent melanotropic action. The structural name of Melanotan II is Ac-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2. The molecular formula for Melanotan II is: C50H69N15O9 Melanotan II falls in the class of peptides hormones referred to as Melanocortins.
A gas chromatograph (GC) can be utilized to analyze the contents of a sample quantitatively or in certain circumstances also qualitatively. In the case of preparative chromatography, a pure compound can be extracted from a mixture. The principle of gas chromatography can be explained as following: A micro syringe is used to inject a known volume of vaporous or liquid analyte into the head or entrance of a column whereby a stream of an inert gas acts a carrier (mobile phase). The column acts as a separator of individual or chemically similar components. A column is typically packed with a stationary non-volatile matter (stationary phase). The separation occurs due to different interactions of each component with the stationary phase.
Biochemical tests are the tests used for the identification of bacterial species based on the differences in the biochemical activities of different bacteria. Bacterial physiology differs from one species to the other. These differences in carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, production of certain enzymes and ability to utilize a particular compound help them to be identified by the biochemical tests. Gram’s stain was originally devised by histologist Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram-positive bacteria stain purple, while Gram-negative bacteria stain pink when subjected to Gram staining. Approximately 60-90% of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan and interwoven teichoic acid, while only
The Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199) belongs to zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases family. The aim of this experiment was to determine the subcellular localisation of YAD in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cell was ruptured by homogenisation and fractionated by a process called centrifugation. Protein assay was carried out to calculate the concentration of protein prior to dilutions. ADH assay was carried out to oxidise the ethanol to acetaldehyde and two marker enzymes G6PDH and ALP assays were carried out to aid in the determination of the localisation on YAD. It is concluded that conclude that the ADH enzyme of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that concentrated in the supernatant fraction is located in the cytosol of
Parkinson's is one of the neurodegenerative diseases and is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s 1. It is reported that in developed countries, nearly one out of 100 people older than 60 years old suffers from Parkinson disease 2. Parkinson is allegedly caused by the damage of brain nerve cells on the substantia nigra. This damage causes the decrease of dopamine in the brain which diminished the ability to regulate the movements, bodies, and emotions 3. The symptoms of the disease include progressive loss of muscle control, slowness of movements (bradykinesia), tremor, postural instability, or catalepsy. Catalepsy is a condition characterized by muscle stiffness, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, a tendency
In the round-bottom flask (100 mL), we placed p-aminobenzoic acid (1.2 g) and ethanol (12 mL). We swirled the mixture until the solid dissolved completely. We used Pasteur pipet to add concentrated sulfuric acid (1.0 mL) to the flask. We added boiling stone and assembled the reflux. Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8. After neutralize, we collected benzocaine by vacuum filtration. We used a Buchner funnel to collect benzocaine. We used three 10 ml of water to wash the product. After the product was dry, we weighed, calculate the percent yield and determined the melting point of the product.
Quetiapine Fumarate (QF) is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. QF possesses good solubility in aqueous fluids (1) and ethanol. Quetiapine is available in the market with the brand name of Seroquel XL (2). Inadvertent, rapid drug release in a small period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a prolonged release dosage form is often referred to as “dose dumping”. Jhonson F. et al. highlighted that in United States, the dose dumping in general and alcohol induced dose dumping in particular is considered as a serious concern for orally administered prolonged release dosage forms (3). Subjuct to the therapeutic