Melamine Lab Report

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.ABSTRACT:
Melamine is a commercially synthesized organic compound which is illegally added to milk products while processing in order to boost the apparent protein content. As Melamine cannot be metabolized by the body, it forms insoluble crystals which lead to tissue damage and renal dysfunction. So, there is a need to develop a rapid and reliable method for melamine detection. Out of many detection methods available, use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in detection is a simple and cost effective method. In this paper, the AgNPs are synthesized by three methods: borohydride reduction method, citrate capped nanoparticles and PVP capped nanoparticles and characterized for their shape and structure. It is observed that the nanoparticles synthesized
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Because of the high nitrogen content (66% nitrogen), it is illegally added to the milk to increase the apparent protein content. Addition of 1% of melamine in food causes the artificial protein content to boost more than 4% [1]. Standard tests such as Kjeldahl and Dumas tests for estimating protein in food are unable to distinguish between the nitrogen of protein and non-protein sources such as melamine, and hence, give false results. In 2008, it was reported that the consumption of melamine adulterated infant formula and dairy products in China has caused renal failure and even death of infants [2] To ensure safety and for protection of public health, maximum residue limit (MRL) for melamine in various products has been restricted to 2.5ppm in USA and 1 ppm in infant formula in China. [4]. Hence there is a need to develop a rapid and reliable method for melamine detection. Currently there are many methods of detection used like ELISA[3], HPLC, GC-MS are very expensive and requires technical expertise. Gold and silver nanoparticles have recently gained importance in the detection of various analyte due to their inter-distance solution colour and absorption spectra [5].in this paper,…show more content…
The XRD patterns were recorded using Rigaku Miniflex IIC Table Top XRD. The SEM images are obtained using Tescan Vega III SEM instrument. Malvern Zeta Sizer Nano series Nano-S instrument was used for Particle size analysis.
2.3 Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles
2.3.1 Preparation of silver nanoparticles by borohydride reduction method.
Firstly a 100 ml solution of AgNO3 (1mM) is prepared in a beaker. Then 10 ml of sodium borohydride (0.1M) is added drop wise to the beaker under continuous stirring for 6 hours. A change in the colour is observed and a solution of pale yellow is obtained. This mixture is allowed to rest for 8 hours before use.
2.3.2 Preparation of silver nanoparticles with citrate as capping agent
Firstly a 10 ml solution of AgNO3 (0.01M) is prepared in a beaker. Then 10 ml of sodium citrate (0.01M) is added drop wise to the beaker and stirred for 10 minutes. Then 10 ml of sodium borohydride (0.01M) is added drop wise to the beaker under vigorous shaking as the reaction is rapid. This mixture is allowed to rest for 8 hours and finally the yellow solution of AgNPs is stored at 4oC before use 3. Results and

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