Mercuric Chloride Lab Report

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Chlorides of group || cations contain (Cadmium chloride, Mercuric chloride, Copper chloride and Bismuth chloride).
1- Mercuric chloride HgCl2:-
It's poisonous odorless white crystalline solid, very toxic compound, and it's slightly volatile at ordinary temperatures. Parent acid and base: Hydrochloric acid HCl + Hg(OH) 2
Uses:-
*Antiseptic and disinfectant in insecticides, preservatives, and batteries.
*Antibacterial.
* Obsolete substance.
Preparation:
Mercuric chloride can be obtained by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a hot, to concentrated solution of mercury (I) nitrate:
HgNO3 + 2 HCl → HgCl2 + H2O + NO2
Mercury is one of the few liquid elements. It dissolves in oxidizing acids, producing either Hg2+ or Hg22+,
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Confirmation tests for mercuric chloride: 1- After adding stannous chloride, gray precipitate will be formed:
2HgCl2 + SnCl2 → Hg2Cl2↓ (white ppt) + SnCl4
Hg2Cl2↓ + SnCl2→ 2HgO ↓ (black ppt) + SnCl4

2- Add potassium iodide, scarlet red precipitate is obtained and it's soluble in excess
Iodide:
Hg2+ + 2I- → HgI2↓
HgI2↓ + 2I- → [HgI4]
Special reactions of HgCl2: 1- Yellow precipitate of HgO is obtained when it reacts with NaOH:
Hg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) --> HgO(s) + H2O(l)
HgCl2(s) + 2OH-(aq) --> HgO(s) + H2O(l) +
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Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place. Highly toxic or infectious materials should be stored in a separate locked safety storage cabinet or room.
-Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation: The products of degradation are more toxic.
-Precautions:
Keep locked up do not ingest. Do not breathe dust. Wear suitable protective clothing if ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label.

3-Copper chloride CuCl2 : It's a solid chemical compound with yellow-brown color, sabsorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate. It occurs in nature as very rare mineral. Copper chloride dissolve in aqueous solutions to give [Cu (H2O)6]2+ which has blue color, and yellow or red color of the halide complexes [CuCl2+x]x-. Concentrated solutions of CuCl2 are green due to the combination of these various chromophores. It's also considering as week Lewis acid and mild oxidizing agent.

The aqueous solutions of copper(II) chloride is Green when high in [Cl−], but more blue when lower in [Cl−].
Parent acid and base: Hydrochloric acid HCl + Cu (OH) 2
Uses:
*Can be used in organic synthesis as it effects chlorination of aromatic hydrocarbons, this is often performed in the presence of aluminium oxide. It is able to chlorinate the alpha position of carbonyl

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