Folger, J. P., Poole, M. S., & Stutman, R. K. (2016). Working Through Conflict: Strategies for Relationships, Groups, and Organizations (7th ed.). New York, United States of America: Routledge. The textbook Working Through Conflict analyses social science research and theories on conflict. The purpose of this book is to give the reader a better understanding of human behavior in a wide range of conflict situations.
(2017) identify the positive results of past studies at the micro- and mesolevel of using intergroup contact situations but emphasize that the studies have not been successful at showing macrolevel improvements. The authors posit that macrolevel changes have been understudied, especially as they relate to hostile and overtly violent intergroup conflicts. The authors emphasize the need for further research on intergroup contact between hostile and violent groups and finding an approach that lessens the intensity of hostile and violent intergroup interactions worldwide. An approach considered by the authors for reducing intergroup conflict is the same approach used in negotiations. Citing several books on positive negotiation tactics, including Galluccio (2015), the authors explain that when two parties successfully negotiate a resolution - whereby the parties are content with the outcomes - the parties are more amicable towards one another in future encounters.
According to Rahim (2001), conflict is an interactive process manifested in incompatibility disagreement, or dissonance within or between social entities (i.e., individual, group, organization, etc. For a conflict to happen generally you will need to have more than one party having different views or interests over something. Research has shown that conflict is inevitable hence a need to prevent or manage it. In an organization usually conflict arise due to various reasons, Moore (1996: 60-61) categorized the causes of conflict into five and suggested strategies in dealing with each conflict sphere. According to Moore, these categories are data / information, relationships, externals or moods, structural and values conflicts.
Cognitive Approach for conflict resolution Al-Tabtabai(39) and colleagues propose a conflict resolution technique using a cognitive analysis approach. This approach identifies a main source of conflict as the cognitive differences between parties. Feedback is presented that gives analysis of each individual 's judgement and comparisons with the counterpart 's judgement. This cognitive feedback provides insight to conflicting parties and gives them an opportunity to reach an acceptable resolution to the conflict. The proposed systematic methodology to conflict resolution identifies and measures the cues, judgements and determines the relationships between these variables.
A conflict needs to be well and timely managed, else it can lead to low productivity or service delivery. If managed well , it can give positive result. A method should be adopted where the causes of conflicts should be noted down as soon as the conflict is noticed. Conflict is an inseparable part of people’s life. A conflict can be viewed as a positive or a negative side of coin.
However since states often perceive to identify the area of dispute as a crucial part of their history or dignity, territorial conflicts are entangled together with the question of national identity. In resolving those territorial disputes direct negotiations between the contending states is useful and often necessary, but employing the pathway of constructivist approach makes the resolution mechanism an indirect one. Because while constructivism paradigm sets it focus to involve part of long ‘historical’ as well as social process, territorial disputes ,with their tendency to escalate to physical conflict more easily and quickly , may came out of control than other security
Definitions and assumptions about conflict Conflict is a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat (issue) to their needs, interests or concerns. Within this simple definition there are several important understandings that emerge: Disagreement - Some level of difference in the positions of the two (or more) parties involved in the conflict. But the true disagreement versus the perceived disagreement may be quite different from one another. In fact, conflict tends to be accompanied by significant levels of misunderstanding that exaggerate the perceived disagreement considerably. If we can understand the true areas of disagreement, this will help us solve the right problems and manage the true needs of the parties.
McKenzie (2002), affirms negative outcomes that accompany conflicts in the workplace including high turnover rates and reduced staff morale, which culminate into low productivity. Essentially, the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model identifies five conflict resolution styles including the accommodative, avoiding, competing, compromising and collaborating styles, based on levels of assertiveness and cooperativeness. According to Kilmann & Thomas (1975), the collaborative approach is the best; defined by high levels of cooperation and assertiveness that stresses consideration of viewpoints, importance and needs of all parties for the best solutions. As such, Mr. Jarvis’ style would fail to appropriately deal with conflict and hence positive business outcomes as employee cooperation would be forced, assertiveness low and general lack of regard for employee input would allow conflicts to fester. On the other hand, Mr. Lancaster’s style conforms to a collaborative conflict resolution style where the leader or manager encourages employees to air their views, which would ensure that conflicts are handled in an appropriate fashion (Mullins, 2013).
Coser manages to be distinct from rest of his contemporaries because he was the first to consider the functional consequences of conflict. He believes conflict to be an integral and natural component of the society. Lewis Coser in his book, The Functions of Social Conflict, 1956, puts how groups require disharmony along with harmony, disassociation with association and why conflicts within groups are in no means disruptive factors. He in fact writes about the extent to which conflict is an essential element for group