Introduction Thrombocytosis is when you have too many platelets (thrombocytes) in your blood. Platelets are parts of blood that stick together and form a clot (thrombus) to help your body stop bleeding. Some conditions that cause inflammation, such as cancer, may trigger your body to make more platelets than normal. There are two types of thrombocytosis. Primary or essential thrombocytosis happens when abnormal cells in the bone marrow make too many platelets.
Screening method and public awareness are lacking. Due to this, disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage accompanied by metastasis in patients, and it leads to a poor prognosis. 50% is five-year survival rate of this disease (3,16). Squamous cell carcinoma being the most prevalent type in the oral cancer which is the common cancer throughout the world. Approximately there are 260000 new cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and 124000 deaths worldwide annually
There should be a control on the number of cells that are killed by apoptosis as a high rate of programmed cell death will result in atrophy. On the other hand a rate of apoptosis that is lower than usual, will result in too many cells and may lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation (cancer). The structural changes that occur during apoptosis can be described in two stages: 1. Nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation occurs. The cell breaks up into small membrane bound bodies known as apoptotic bodies.
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a rare autosomal dominant disease that causes progressive loss of the myelin sheath that covers the nerve fibers, along with progressive adrenal gland degeneration. Prognosis is usually poor with ALD, as patients usually die within 10 years from the onset of symptoms. Maple Syrup Urine Disease involves the breakdown of certain amino acids by enzymes and affects 1 out of 176 individuals. Treatment is protein restriction in the diet, but some patients benefit from the intake of thiamine daily. Refsum disease is cause by a dysfunction in the metabolism of lipids that leads to high concentrations of phytanic acid in tissues and blood plasma.
Also these patients have high opportunity of having skin cancer because of the patient’s cell inability to repair damaged DNA. Examples of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. The second part for the symptoms to show up is in the eye. About 80% of patients have eye abnormalities (6). The symptoms are inflammation of the cornea, clouding of the lens, and excessive tearing.finally is the Neurological symptoms that affect roughly 30% of the patients.
This is a trans-membrane protein of the Golgi network, responsible to remove excess copper out of the cell through ceruloplasmin. Mutations in ATP7B gene lead to an abnormal ATPase protein which is incapable of removing excess copper leading to its accumulation in different tissues. So far 500 mutations have been reported . The consequences can be very fatal, if not diagnosed and treated properly as it can lead to irreversible damage to brain and liver
When the blockage is temporary or partial, angina (chest pain or pressure) may occur. When the blockage completely and suddenly cuts off the flow of blood, the result is myocardial infarction. Congenital defects and spasms of a coronary artery may also block blood flow. There is evidence that infection from organisms such as chlamydia bacteria may be responsible for some cases of coronary artery disease. A number of major contributing factors increase
Introduction A significant percentage of bone fractures occur because of high force impact or stress. However, a fracture may also be the result of some medical conditions which weaken the bones, for example osteoporosis, some cancers, or brittle bone diseases. A fracture caused by a medical condition is known as a pathological fracture. Most bone fractures are caused by falls and accidents. There are a number of different types of fractures, including avulsion, comminuted, and hairline fractures.
Surveys showed that around 800 Maori were admitted to hospital each year in that 140 per year die from stroke. Heart failure: Heart failure is a disease in which the heart fails to pump enough blood, it leads to shortness of breath, fluid retention and congestion. The main causes are coronary heart disease, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, excess alcohol intake and rheumatic heart disease (Robson & Harris,
During neuronal development many neurons die to match the number of targets cells that require innervation. Also in adult human billions of cells in the bone marrow and intestine die each day. Apoptosis also occurs during DNA damage and different stresses, if the damage is high enough. This allows organism to get rid of nonfunctioning cells and it prevents the development of cancer by removing cell with potentially cancer-promoting mutations. In apoptosis cells die without bursting or causing inflammation reaction.