This paper explores the implication of narrative in the context of Canadian criminology and explores its influence on criminality and criminal desistance. In the research of both humanitarian and social sciences, narrative criminology emerged nearly a decade after most other fields had adopted the concept of narrative identity into their research and social perspective. The examination of society and identity in the perpetuation and changes in our social moral codes that define deviance, and by extension, crime through determining normalcy. Narrative identity is the theory that identity develops from the contextualization and internalization of external culture by the individual. Through this, the individual understands their place in the narrative …show more content…
Understanding the perception of mainstream Canadian society is central in the pursuit of understanding the Western criminal narrative. The central feature of Western society is the emphasis on capitalist social values: efficiency, and aesthetic utilitarianism. These inform the trajectory of the social narrative in terms of our communal goals as a "society", how we will achieve that goal, and who will be involved. This model leaves little space for the inclusion of non-conformist behaviour, in other words, deviance. The deviance from Western society on a personal or communal level can lead to the social marginalization (the movement of person or persons to the periphery of society whether institutionalized or individualized) of the individual or community leading to their exclusion through social stratification. In the context of Jaspreet Sidhu 's thesis work on the criminality and identity of (male) Punjabi Sikh youth (2012), "an interplay of parental, cultural, institutional, and societal processes impacted participants’ identities and subsequent action[s]" (iv) emphasized the tension between mainstream Canadian culture and practices, tradition and identities deviant from that of the dominant culture. Dukelow sees this as being codified through our institutions, which are often headed by those with the most power who …show more content…
5). This Canadian research also helps in defining who mainstream Canada defines as societal citizens, and who is in need of "enculturation" which is often argued as a form of post-colonial violence (Cunneen 2009; Regan 2010; Nichols 2014). The school-to-prison pipeline theory (Skiba, Arredondo, and Williams 2014) provides ample evidence for the institutionalized practice in which non-marginalized citizens of society participate actively and passively in defining the social boundaries which promote their marginalization and enforces their role as the
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Her article discusses that even in the early 20th century the British Columbia penitentiary advised that white prisoners should associate as little as possible with Indians and Half-breeds (Minister of Justice, 2895:113, as cited in Chartrand, 2019). She traces back to the colonial era and explains that Indigenous people were punished and imprisoned for resisting the rules. She argues that we need to address the issues within the Canadian penitentiary system there is a need for decolonization. Decolonization allows for the restoration of colonized groups whose power was stolen. Decolonization in the prison system is an important step to reducing systemic racism and can produce fairer outcomes for Indigenous people (Korchak, 2017).
Manufacturing Guilt Wrongful Convictions in Canada, Second Edition, is relevant to the course I am taking Social Inequity and Justice because, like my course this book discusses and examines sociological approaches to social inequity in regard to race and ethnicity and how it effects these groups and their lives. Manufacturing Guilt Wrongful Convictions in Canada, Second Edition is about innocent people that spend many years behind bars, wrongfully committed for crimes they did not commit. When someone is wrongfully convicted, they are being punished for an offence they did not commit and to make matters worse the actual perpetrator of the crime goes free. Many people that do get exonerated their applications take years in the federal review
This book review will define the important aspects of continued mistreatment, deaths, and alienation of Canada's First peoples in Seven Fallen Feathers by Tanya Talaga. One of the most compelling aspects of Talaga’s book is defined in an investigation of the deaths of indigenous students in the mid-20th century, and more importantly, the continued lack of government response to the deaths of seven indigenous youths in the 21st century. All of these incidents show a systemic problem with government monitoring and investigating these deaths of native peoples living in the Thunder Bay region. The tragedy of these incidents reveal an ongoing problem with racism and government non-compliance with preventing the deaths of neglected youths, which
Indigenous Canadians and the Criminal Justice System The Canadian Criminal Justice System is failing Canada’s Indigenous population. As explained in The McGill Daily’s article “Canada’s Justice System is Anti-Indigenous”, Indigenous individuals are overrepresented in the justice system, further increasing their marginalization within society. The term overrepresentation essentially refers to the fact that the number of Indigenous people within the justice system is drastically disproportionate to their overall population (Editorial Board, 2022). Indigenous people in Canada already face countless forms of oppression, and the justice system is another harmful manifestation of this oppression. All of Canada’s institutions perpetuate discrimination
Residential Schools: The Aboriginal Cultural Genocide Culminating Research Essay Grade 10 History Annika Nerling 07/23/2015 Canada is known for being one of the most multicultural and diversely supportive countries in the world; but many Aboriginal people would argue that Canada was not always as “caring and free” as it is today. From 1870 until 1996, Canada’s government supported the use of residential schools throughout the country (MacDonald, 426). Residential schools were boarding schools that Aboriginal children were forced to go to by the Canadian government, so that they would assimilate the Aboriginal children into the same religion and culture as the European settlers in Canada. During their time in residential schools,
The film is a scathing critique of the institutional corruption and racial inequality that pervades the justice system. Through the character of Stanley and his fellow inmates, the movie raises critical questions about the role of the state in regulating the lives of citizens, the use and abuse of power by authorities, and the ways in which social and legal norms shape our perception of crime and
Sutherland’s theory of Differential Association takes a macro level analysis as to why people commit crimes and brings it to a micro level analysis. He concludes that looking at a multiple factor approach did not explain why crimes are committed. Instead he asks the question what one singular factor touches on these multilevel factors. Sutherland looked for the universal explanation as to why crimes are committed rather than looking at individual reasons. His theory seeks what has always been present in crime and what has not or better yet what mechanism or experiences correlate to the crimes committed.
It has been observed that there are numerous researches conducted on youth crime particularly in the United Kingdom which gave the emphasis on young individuals as offenders instead of victims of crime. Moreover, radical criminology significantly contributed to understand the youth crime through different theories. According to Yar (2012), radical criminology is known as the conflict philosophy. It centres its perceptions on crime and on regulation in the faith that capitalist civilisations precipitate as well as describe crime as the possessors by sense of production utilise their influence to endorse commandments that would regulate the working class and suppress intimidations to the supremacy of the governing class. Radical criminology draws together the studies of interactionism, labelling, Marxism, critical criminology and gender which provide the understanding of youth crime from different perspective as discussed in the paper.
Deviance and crime is a common characteristic of Canadian society. Deviance is defined as: “recognized violation of cultural norms” (2013, pg.465). While crime is defined as: “recognized violation of society’s formally enacted criminal law” (2013, pg.464). There are some universal similarities about what we as humans consider morally deviant, still, what is regarded as deviant or criminal behavior in Canada may not resonate with other societies. Some behavior “can fall right in between deviant and criminal” (Healy, 2012).
These levels include individual, family, community or country. The outcome is a cycle of inclusion or exclusion categorised by varying levels of access to capabilities, resources, goods and services, inability to actively participate in normal societal activities which are available to the majority of the populace and rights which eventually lead to inequalities (WHO| Social Exclusion & Multidimensional Analysis).Sociologists see very strong links between crime and social exclusion. The growing rate of crimes in the society may be a result of the fact that the number of people who do not feel regarded or included in the society in which they live is increasing daily. Socially excluded populations may not have the needed resources to make live easy for them, so they resort to fraudulent means of getting needed resources. The two families involved in this case (Venables and Thompson) were socially excluded.
Cultural criminology’s “framework is concerned with meaning, power and existential accounts of crime and punishment and control” (Hayward, 2016:300). Which allows cultural criminologist to study crime in the relation to culture and its impact on criminality. Cultural criminology believes it is always “necessary to state and restate what crime is, if nothing else a human activity” (Presdee, 2004:276). The commodification of culture relates to Cultural Criminology in the sense of the many faucets of crime and deviance and what is getting exploited through the media to the public. Commodification of crime is becoming more prevalent as time goes on as the media has such a large influence on society.
Cohen and Marcus (1979) advanced the routine activities approach motivated by Hawley’s (1950) work on human ecology and that of Shaw and McKay (1950) on juvenile delinquency. According to William and McShane (1994: 250), the routine activities approach is somewhat of a recent approach, utilizing two central concepts, freedom of choice and action based on routine behaviours to explain and predict criminal victimisation. 2.1.1 Exposition of the routine activities approach In its early development, the routine activities approach mainly focused on property crimes. As a result many scholars believed that it could not be used in explaining personal or violent crimes, as it seemed to focus on a static state of affairs as far as the victim was concerned (Mustaine and Tewksbury, 2000: 340).
It explains criminal careers in terms of destructive social interaction and stigma-producing encounters (Brown, Esbensen, & Geis, 2010). Social reaction theory explains why people choose criminal careers because of labeling. Negative labels have enduring effects in a person’s social interactions and self-image. Social reaction is concerned with how self-identity and behavior of people can be determined or influenced by the terms that are used to describe or classify them and is associated with the idea of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping (Brown, Esbensen, & Geis, 2010). It distinguishes between primary deviance and secondary deviance.
Social Disorganization Theory Name Institutional Affiliation Crime in our societies is a widespread social phenomenon dating back centuries ago and ranges from low-level delinquencies to high-level offences. Chances are high that one would be involved in crime during their lifetime, either as a victim, or as an assailant. Nevertheless, what really motivates individuals to commit crime? Studies have shown that in different political, economic, and cultural backgrounds, crime occurs in diverse patterns making it a serious social problem. Hence, criminology and sociology experts have examined numerous aspects of crime in an attempt to elucidate why individuals commit crime, and cogently explain its social context.
As far as crime is concerned, it is defined by the law. Deviance is unexpected behaviour, but not exactly considered criminal. Many consider crime as a social problem – a problem as defined by society, such as homelessness, drug abuse, etc. Others would say crime is a sociological problem – something defined as a problem by sociologists and should be dealt with accordingly by sociologists. This essay attempts to discover the boundaries between these two and ultimately come to an appropriate conclusion.