Norovirus Research Paper

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The CDC estimates the every year, approximately 48 million American experience a foodborne illness, resulting in 128,000 hospitalization and 3000 deaths. Eight known pathogens account for the vast majority of those estimates. Those pathogens are Norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Toxoplasma gondi. Norovirus is every contagious virus. You ca get the virus through an infected person, contaminated food or water. The virus causes your stomach and intestine to get inflamed. This leads to stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea. The most common symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, fever, headaches, body aches, stomach pain. There is no specific medication to treat this …show more content…

Most people with infected with salmonella develop a fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps between 12-72 hours. This illness usually last 4 to 7 days and most people recover without any treatment. When severe affection occurs salmonella infection may spread to the intestine to the bloodstream and then to other body site and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics.
Campylobacter jejuni is associated with unpasteurized milk and cheese. Undercooked poultry, raw beef, unchlorinated water. Onset is 2-5 days, symptoms are gastroenteritis, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain, cramps and vomiting. Small percentage develops severe complications, such as bacteremia, meningitis, hepatitis and pancreatitis and Guillan-Barre syndrome.
Clostridium perfringens is a spore- forming gram-positive bacterium that is found in many environmental source as well as in the intestine of humans and animals. C perfringens is treated with oral rehydration and in severe cases intravenous fluids and electrolytes can be used to prevent or treat dehydration. Antibiotics are not recommended. To prevent the growth of c. perfringens in food after cooking, foods such as beef, poultry, gravies and other foods commonly associated with c. perfringens infections should be cooked thoroughly to recommended temperature. Symptoms include intense abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headaches, and the chills. The “cafeteria germ” associated with steam …show more content…

The common food vehicles. Onsets is 2 days to 3 weeks; severe form may have incubation period period of 3 days to 3 months. Raw milk, deli type salads, processed meats, soft cheese, undercooked poultry. Ice cream, raw vegetables, raw and cooked poultry are contributing factors of this bacteria. Symptoms include sudden fever, headaches, back ache, occasional pain, and diarrhea septicemia and meningitis may lead to death. One third of confirmed cases in pregnant women may end in spontaneous abortion or still birth; infants born alive may have bacteremia and meningitis. This bacterium thrives in cold temperatures and appears to be able to survive short- term pasteurization. Mortality from listeric meningitis may be as high as 70 %. Ampicillin is currently the drug right now for treating this

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