The pillars of the bureaucracy represents functions and is specialisms, usually delineated as separate departments- for a example finance, design, marketing, etc. work within and between departments is controlled by procedures, role descriptions and authority definitions. Communication takes place within well-defined systems and structures. There are mechanisms and rules for processing decisions and resolving conflicts. Matters are taken up the line to the top of the structure where heads of functions can define a logical, rational and co-operate response.
A manager is the one in which be the head of a division or department in a firm. They have certain responsibilities depends on the needs of the organization. Every organization carries different ways or job descriptions. The manager’s function is at a pay grade and job classification level of the firm which incorporates functions and departments for implementation achievement. A manager should be has a directly reporting staffs for whom he or she is accountable to provide leadership.
It is the order in which authority and power in an organization is wielded and delegated from top management to every employee at every level of the organization. Instructions flow downwards along the chain of command and accountability flows upward. Positive aspects of Chain Of Command: 1. Each employee has one boss thus alleviating the problem of multiple masters and conflicting direction in chain of command. 2.
Line staff organization Pure product organization According to Kerzner (2009) an organization is termed as pure product organization when there are divisions within division. This type of organization gives more power to program managers and gives them authority to handle projects and manage resources. Following are the characteristics of pure product organization at Sabre
(vi) Project Organisational Structure (vii) Grid Organizational Structure: These hierarchical structures are quickly depicted in the accompanying passages: 1. Line Organizational Structure: A line association has just coordinate, vertical connections between diverse levels in the firm. There are just line divisions offices specifically included in fulfilling the essential objective of the association. Case in point, in an average firm, line divisions incorporate creation and promoting. In a line association power takes after the heirarchy of leadership.
It introduces the idea that duties should be regulated to form a hierarchic system in bureaucracy model as an organization structure.There are several principles of bureaucracy model to manage an organization. First, every step of hierarchy, authority and dutiesare determined formally by pre-determined law, method and administrative regulations. Second, workers are divided into several division by specialized staff member that using rules and standard as determinant. Third, every step in processes and communication are done in written form. Fourth, workers obey the order that based on legal authority.
Weber’s ideal type aims to specify the factors that must be taken into consideration in investigations and to define them clearly. Weber’s ideal type operates within the hypothesis that the different bureaucratic characteristics contribute to the efficiency and power of organizations. In order to achieve this efficient, ideal type bureaucracy, Weber underscores several fundamental characteristics that an organization must possess in order to achieve this ideal type. Firstly, a bureaucratic organization must operate within a formal, disciplined, hierarchical structure. Under this disciplined hierarchal structure, every official is held accountable for his subordinates’, as well as his own, decisions and actions.
They exercise authority with well-defined rules & regulations. Therefore, bureaucracy is an organization, with well established rules, regulations, powers and functions. The following are the basic features of his theory of bureaucracy: • Bureaucratic organization is based upon a well-defined hierarchy. This hierarchy, based on authority, has trends in the downward direction. Authority flows from top to bottom as shown in figure
Max Weber is the father of bureaucratic management theory and according to him, there are some characteristics for the ideal bureaucracy. According to Pendez (n.d.), all bureaucracies share similar characteristics including fixed division of labour and specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules and regulation, technical competence, impersonality and formal and written communications. However, Larsen (2014) said that the six characteristics of bureaucracy are specialization, hierarchy of authority, explicit written rules, impersonality, qualification and separation of work and ownership. Decision-making is the action or process of making decisions. According to Bolfikova, Hrehova and Frenova (2010), decision-making within organisations is characterised by distintive effort to restrain the mechanisms of classical bureaucratic systems and this mean that decision-making will be affected by
P4 Explain the key approaches to operations management and the role that leaders and managers play in Toyota global business strategy. Slide 1 The presentation explains the role of the managers and leaders in developing the global business strategy for Toyota Plc with the application of approaches of operational management in the organization along with the description of the values of operational management in the achievement of the objectives of Toyota Plc. Slide 2 This slide explain the operational management and the functions of the operational management in increasing the productivity of the organization. Slide 3 This slides depicts the six sigma methodology which are applied in the organization in order to improve the production processes and increase the efficiency. Six sigma eliminates the six types of waste in the organizations.