Said is very critical about how the Western scholars have studied Eastern countries because Orientalists have books that are only focusing on the Orient and the Orientalist as their main authority even today, the Orient being the Easterners and the Occident being the Westerners. This therefore leads to Western novelists, theorists, poets promoting the distinction or difference between the East and West and creating theories, social
While scholarship was heavily used to delve into Orientalism, art was nonetheless a key factor of Orientalism, and helped the Occident gain a glance into the Asian life. More specifically, for the purposes of this essay I will be analyzing Jean–Léon Gérôme’s “Prayer in the Mosque”, an Orientalist painting finished in 1871 (see appendix 1). Gérôme’s work was heavily influenced by the Orient, and he was one of the major French painters of the time that specifically focused on the orient after a voyage he took to Egypt in
With the publication of Orientalism in 1978, Edward Said hugely influenced scholarly debates about the Middle-East and the perception of the West. In 2007, Daniel Martin Varisco presented an in-depth, critical reflection of Said’s book Orientalism in Reading Orientalism: Said and the Unsaid. Varisco does this by analyzing supporters as well as opponents of Said’s book about orientalism. Varisco’s reasoning for writing the book was not because he necessarily disagreed with what Said argues, it is rather that Varisco thought Said’s points could be better argued with the right evidence. When Said published Orientalism in 1978, the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle-East received large attention in the Western media coverage.
The Pioneer phase dealt with the following aspects; decompartmentalisation, social morality, truth, the total work of art, technology, function, progress, anti-historicism, abstraction, internationalism, transformation and theology to be able to achieve the International style which we can all perceive as modernism today. Postmodernism was first heard of in the 1960’s, a term used by artists and critics and refers to a movement that stands against the principles of modernism. In contrast to the designers that where for one International style that is modernism, the artists in favour of Postmodernism, like Jean Francois Lyotard believed that we can no longer talk about a totalizing idea of reason for there is no reason, only reasons. (Sarup, 1993: 131-132) While this essay primarily puts focus on specific years in which the electric kettle was manufactured, general history will still be discussed as
The early Islamic period has an undeniable impact on shaping the Middle East. In the pre-Islamic age, Sassanid and Byzantine Empires were superior forces in the Middle East, which had their own political autonomy and civilization. However, the emergence of Islamic civilization, the superiority and impact of these two empires broke down, and the Middle East started to be reshaped and ruled by Arab-Muslims. The early Islamic era contributed significant alterations to the Middle East, including the religion of Islam, well-organized administration, urbanism, and social changes. However, according to some scholars, such changes have a pre-Islamic character which implies that reshaping of the Middle East started before the emergence of Islam (Bennison 2009, pg.55).
The last decades of the 19th century saw the rise of new painting techniques in Western Europe, that challenged the Classical approach that the arts had acquired and denominated what was considered a work of art or not. One of such movements was Symbolism, which began as a literary movement in France with Charles Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal written in 1857. It is often considered a definite break from Classical painting, as it emphasizes symbols and ideas through the use of forms, lines, shapes and colors; fighting the representational nature of the former. Even though both are opposite tendencies, this didn’t stop emerging artists from combining them to reach new levels of expressions, as is the case with Gustave Moreau, a French painter born in Paris in 1826. Moreau’s work is prominently history paintings, but it is his use of Symbolism that makes his artwork so intricate and complex, which forces viewers to navigate the piece to be able to understand it.
Said´s thesis on Orientalism (1978) and proposes that farang is an Occidentalising project conceived and conducted through Siam´s constantly changing historical and cultural experiences with and against the West. Edward Said is well known for his work on colonialism and orientalism in which he criticizes how knowledge about the Orient has been shaped. He directly challenged what Euro-American scholars traditionally referred to as "Orientalism", which is an entrenched structure of thought, a pattern of making certain generalizations about the part of the world known as the Orient. Orientalism is a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient´s special place in European-Western experience. It has helped to define Europe
But contemporary conceptions of culture are radically different from the meaning culture used to have when anthropology developed as a discipline within the academy in the nineteenth century. A brief excursion into the shifting meaning of culture over the years may help to clarify contemporary connotations of culture. Many anthropological textbooks open with the definition of culture as a whole way of life of a group or society as it was first formulated by the English
1.1INTRODUCTION In its original sense, orientalism refers to the scholarly study of the history, culture, and art of the East: India, Asia and Levant (Arthur Goldwag, p.114). But through Palestinian scholar Edward said the term orientalism got an imperialistic connotation. Said in his book titled Orientalism said, “Orientalism is a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between “the Orient” and (most of the time) “the Occident”. Said defines the Orient as, “an idea that has a history and a tradition of thought, imagery, and vocabulary that have given it reality and presence in and for the West. The two geographical entities thus support and to an extent reflect each other” (Said 5).
International relations discuss the relationships amongst countries and the presence of other organisations in the political spectrum. Orientalism is crucial to this post-colonial understanding of international relations. Edward Said addressed this concept of Orientalism in 1978 through his book ‘Orientalism’ and raised arguments like how the partition between East and West is an imagined margin on the basis of an ‘us versus them’ idea and the West’s use of binary opposition between the East and West to demarcate themselves as the superior race and qualifying occupation as their responsibility to bring civilisation to the weaker Orient. He also explains concepts like the oversimplifying of traits linked to the Orientals and essentialising them and the Orient to form a conception about them, and moulding the Orientals to be as the West sees them.