Parenting Styles Essay

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How parents impact child development has been a long interest in the field of psychology. It is evident in recent researches that there are convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children’s self-esteem. The term, “parenting styles” refers to behaviours and strategies used by parents to control and socialise their children (Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009). According to Baumrind (1971), there are three types of parenting styles, namely authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. It was later re-evaluated by Maccoby and Martin (1983) into four styles, which are authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful. The term, “self-esteem” is defined as one’s assessment of their own self-worth (Lightfoot, …show more content…

Baurmind (1991) highlighted that authoritarian parents tend to be demanding and directive but are not responsive enough to their children’s needs. They tend to exercise authority and control by demanding unquestioning obedience. They often fail to explain the reasoning for the rules. Thus, children might feel detached as the parents express little warmth, discourage verbal give-and-take and demand adherence to high standards. Miller (2010) conjectured that children who grow up under authoritarian parenting styles often experience long term emotional consequences. They tend to have poor social skills, low self-esteem, anger and higher rates of depression and anxiety. It is due to independence is discouraged; children are taught to follow rules rather than taking initiatives. They are not taught how to think. This lack of independence, both emotional and physical, can eventually result in low self-esteem. Nevertheless, the kids often experience increased anxiety. When they are not free to express themselves, they will tend toward helplessness or rebellion. Sooner or later, they develop as an overactive superego. Freud (1923) in McLeod (2008) stated that if a person’s ideal self is too high a standard, then whatever the person does will represent failure. Therefore, it results in low-esteem among children who are raised up by authoritarian

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