Parenting Styles

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How parents impact child development has been a long interest in the field of psychology. It is evident in recent researches that there are convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children’s self-esteem. The term, “parenting styles” refers to behaviours and strategies used by parents to control and socialise their children (Lightfoot, Cole & Cole, 2009). According to Baumrind (1971), there are three types of parenting styles, namely authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. It was later re-evaluated by Maccoby and Martin (1983) into four styles, which are authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful. The term, “self-esteem” is defined as one’s assessment of their own self-worth (Lightfoot,…show more content…
Maccoby and Martin (1983) explained that authoritative parents tend to have high demandingness and responsiveness. It means that they will set up rules and regulations which must be followed by their children. Nonetheless, they also tend to be more open about their reasoning and take into account their children’s opinions more and willing to talk about issues with their children in a supportive manner instead of simply inflicting punishment as compared to authoritarian parents. Furthermore, authoritative parents tend to encourage independence, individuality, open communication, and recognition of the rights of both parents and children (Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman & Roberts, 1987) so that their children will become socially responsible, self-regulated, cooperative, and assertive. Thus, Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, and Keehn (2007) contemplated that authoritative parents will bring up a child to have higher self-esteem compared to the other parenting styles. The findings in the research suggested that authoritative parenting also had highest scores on measures of academic and social self-esteem (Martinez, Garcia & Yubero 2007). It is because discipline is aimed at affording clarity and being supportive with warmth, reason, flexibility, and verbal give-and-take. Consequently, children can develop better emotionally and socially in terms of acquiring secure attachments…show more content…
They are deemed to be consumed with their own needs so much that they ignore or neglect the needs of their children. Children with neglectful parents showed the lowest levels in social, emotional, and academic abilities (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994). Children from neglectful family are often very lonely because they do not receive the necessary love from their parents. They also do not know how to develop their social skills and they might face difficulties in school, furthermore, they will act out the emotion in order to get the attention from their parents (Miller, 2010). These children often end up with psychological and behavioural problems. In the extreme, it becomes neglect, which is a form of child abuse (Sailor, 2004). Children with few rules who are ignored or living with hostility are noncompliant and aggressive. Eventually, they will have low self-esteem because they felt they are being abandoned by their parents and the

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