Chronic Periodontitis Literature Review

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Review of literature
Chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of tooth-supporting structures that results in the loss of periodontal support tissues, with increased tooth mobility and eventually tooth loss. Furthermore, it is characterized by the periodontal pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. The hallmark clinical feature of established periodontitis is clinical attachment loss. ,
Chronic periodontitis represents a pathological progression of gingivitis, which, in contrast, is a reversible inflammation in response to intra-oral plaque bacteria that is restricted entirely to the gingival soft tissues without loss of periodontal connective tissue attachment. Chronic periodontitis is clinically and pathologically distinct
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The next step is bacterial invasion or invasion by pathogenic products into the periodontal tissues, interactions of bacteria or their substances with host cells, and this directly/indirectly causes degradation of the periodontium, resulting in tissue destruction.
As a Microbial Habitat, the mouth provides a warm and moist environment that suits the growth of many microorganisms. The mouth is the only site in the human body that normally provides non-shedding surfaces for microbial colonization; this facilitates the development of thick biofilms, particularly at stagnant sites. Thus, in this way, the host provides unique opportunities for biofilm formation in the mouth, and a secure haven for microbial persistence.
Oral environment determines the constituent species of dental biofilm and the variation between individuals. The oral environment, in turn, is determined by factors such as genetics, age, diet, smoking, alcohol intake and individual oral hygiene practices. These factors have profound effects on the microbial composition of dental biofilm and therefore the onset of oral pathologies such as dental caries and periodontal
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They appeared to be a group of bacteria that existed in the biofilm milieu, less cognitively associated with other individual bacterial species. The orange cluster consisted of Fusobacterium species, Prevotellaspecies, Micromonasmicros, Peptostreptococcus micros, Campylobacter species, Eubacteriumspecies and Streptococcus constellatus. These species have been considered bridging species related to both, their physiological capabilities to use and release nutrient substances in the biofilms, and the recognition that they express cell surface structures and can bind to the early colonizers and to members of the red complex.

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