Following untreated gingivitis is periodontitis (Hajishengallis,2014). Periodontitis is the predominant damage of the periodontium, which can be the supporting tissues and bones of the teeth. This advanced form of gingivitis is also resulting from a microorganism that remains inside the mouth, which brought about infection as properly. The signs and symptoms of periodontal disease can range from a simple gum infection to fundamental harm of the the helping functions of the teeth
to adhere and colonize human intestinal mucosa/ epithelial cells is a major criterion for selection as probiotic or commensal bacteria. Adhesion to the host tissues is a prerequisite first step of bacterial colonization which is generally mediated by cell surface adhesion proteins . Adhesion of probiotic bacteria not only help in persistence of bacteria in gut but also participate in pathogen exclusion by competition and blocking of their binding sites at the mucosa . This adherence to epithelial cells on mucosal surface is modulated by specific binding of microbial adhesins. Lactobacilli adhesins can be broadly classified according to their targets in the intestinal mucosa (i.e.
This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA. The function of the plasmid is to provide bacteria with genetic advantages such as antibiotic resistance. In this lab, the plasmids provided the ampicillin resistance and the fluorescence. If the bacterial cells are grown in the presence of the antibiotic ampicillin then only the cells that took up the plasmid have the resistance gene. As a result the resistance gene will have to keep the plasmid and the GFP gene.
Bacterium growth on various agar plates Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to show different agar plates inhibit or enable growth of different organisms. Some varieties of media enable the grow of a wide range of organisms such as nutrient agar. Other media are selective which means they contain specific nutrients to encourage the growth of certain organisms. This means other organisms will die due to the selective nutrients such as high concentration of salt which will cause plasmolysis. Differential organisms require different nutrients which show it is fairly easy to isolate and identify organisms by using selective media.
It has a circular toothfilled mouth, thus sucks blood and other bodily fluids. Thus, at last they kill their host. SUMMARY OF HOST PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS • The host provides the pathogen with the necessary requirements and it depends on the pathogen how to use the host mechanism for its benefits. • As the pathogens are capable of causing a disease in the host, it doesn’t mean that they will cause disease in all the host cells. • Due to the various activities of the pathogen within the host, the host’s immune response gets activated and can kill the pathogens in some
Introduction Chronic otitis media (COM) is an inflammation of part or all of the mucoperiosteal lining of middle ear cleft. The disease has two types; mucosal and squamous (cholesteatoma). Most perforations of pars tensa are central indicative of mucosal disease. All attic disease and marginal perforations are indicative of squamous disease. The typical feature of squamous disease is the presence of a cholesteatoma (Keratinizing squamous epithelium) in the middle ear cleft.1 The bony involvement by the disease may give rise to granulation or polyp.
 While abnormal growth of the periodontal tissue is mainly associated with plaque related inflammation, drugs such as nifedipine and amlodipine, have been implicated in causing gingival overgrowth, which may be brought to dental attention because of pain, bleeding or appearance. The anti-dysrhythmicagentsdisopyramide and propafenone and the anti-hypertensive drugs indoramin and methyldopa may cause a dry mouth.  ACE inhibitors and amiodarone sometimes give rise to altered taste, typically described as 'metallic '. If an offending drug can be identified, it may be possible (in consultation with the prescriber) to discontinue it or give an alternative.
Clinical Features And Management Review of literature shows that clinical features of trauma from occlusion include 4,8,9 progressive mobility of tooth, pain on chewing or percussion, positive fremitus test, occlusal prematurities/ discrepancies, wear facets, migration of tooth, chipped or fractured tooth (teeth), thermal sensitivity etc. There are other signs also which can be assessed radiographically. Radiographic signs include presence of widened perodontal ligament space, thickening of the lamina dura, bone loss (furcations) and root resorption , increase in bone in density or apical bone sclerosis . Management of trauma from occlusion is done by removal of the excessive occlusal forces and attaining optimum functional occlusal relationships comfortable to the teeth and periodontium by methods such as occlusal adjustment, dental restorations, removal of selected teeth, occlusal reconstruction, management of parafunctional habits, stabilization of mobile teeth with removable or fixed appliances, orthodontic tooth movements and orthognathic
Chronic periodontitis Chronic Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms or groups of specific microorganisms, leading to progressive destruction of the attachment apparatus of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone with periodontal pocket formation, and recession of the gingival tissue(1) . The clinical feature that characterizes periodontitis from gingivitis is the presence of clinically apparent attachment loss. This loss mainly is associated with changes in the density and height of subjacent alveolar bone (1). Severe generalized periodontitis affects 5–15% of any population worldwide and is a major cause of teeth loss after dental caries (2). Chronic Periodontitis also known as adult periodontitis or chronic adult
Because C. tetani is an anaerobic bacterium, it and its endospores thrive in environments that lack oxygen. Hence, stepping on a nail (rusty or not) may result in a tetanus infection, as the low-oxygen (anaerobic) environment is caused by the oxidization of the same object that causes a puncture wound, delivering endospores to a suitable environment for growth. exclusively in persons unvaccinated or
aeruginosa’s ability to mutate genetically and transform into different antibiotic-resistant strains, make it the most important bacteria species studied among patients suffering from CF. It’s ability to form a glycocalyx and prevent the host’s white blood cells to attach and phagocytize the pathogen also contributes to its importance of a pathogen. The formation of a biofilm communicates to the bacterial colony that it is being attacked by antibiotics and to mutate to adapt and survive. The mutation of the bacteria to form an alginate to protect it from environmental stresses as well as the ability to release powerful exotoxins to inhibit protein synthesis of the host’s cells add to P. aeruginosa virulence and ability to develop chronic lung infections in CF
The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation. Once those chemicals have been converted, the acidity in the mucous surrounding the bacteria then becomes neutral protecting the bacteria. Even with the immune system being strong, the bacterium does not get abolished due to Helicobacter Pylori creating components in the cell wall that are similar to molecules made in
Periodontal surgery, also known as gum surgery, only occurs when a patient is suffering from a condition such as periodontal disease. The gums of the mouth are the connective tissues that hold the teeth in place. This form of surgery and the associated ailments can also affect the bones within the mouth, in extreme cases. As plaque develops in the mouth and rests on the tooth where the gum line starts, that plaque can work its way below the gum line. Not only does this cause cavities and tooth decay, it also causes an unhealthy erosion of the gums.