In this context, what is meant by the term “science”? Positive sociology is claimed to be a “scientific” approach. If we make the assumption that crime is related to deprivation, we are making a statement which can either be proved or refused by evidence. Positive sociology itself deals only with what might be called “positive” questions, those that do not rely on value judgements. Some of the early sociologists had very strong views on how society should develop and so whilst they might have used positive sociology they would also have dealt with normative sociology.
According to Crowther and Lancaster (2008), as a general rule, positivist studies normally adopt deductive approach). Positivism relies on scientific evidence drawn from experiments and quantified facts which target to reflect the dynamics and picture of the social world. Positivism holds the principles of both inductive and deductive which mean that the latter tests hypotheses and the former gathers knowledge that is reached through gathering of evidence. It relies on scientific facts drawn from experimentation and facts that can be quantified and gives meaning to the dynamics in the social world. It holds the principle of both deductive and inductive which implies that the latter tested hypotheses and the former collects knowledge which is arrived by collecting facts.
This can be seen where Kavitha mentioned several factors as of why sociology is a science. (Kavitha, 2008). Sociology has its own field of study, known as social science, where it is different from physical science relating to physics, chemistry, etc. Sociology is considered as a pure science rather than applied science where it does not focus on whether the attained knowledge is useful as the
Introduction I argue that Marxism is best explains the contemporary phenomenon of economic globalization. “Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation” . “Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and applies that to the critique and analysis of the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. In Marxism, the concept of contradiction between economic and political relations was enacted into historical law. The Marxist position is that the mode of production does in fact determine the superstructure of political relations.
Therefore, it could be said that human life and society cannot come under preview of scientific investigation. However, Weber maintained a different view that researches in social sciences can also based upon generalizations like of natural science. He saw sociology as a science that employs both interpretative understanding and casual explanation of social actions and interaction. As claimed, his theory being subjective motivational and historical and dualism rather than naturalistic, empirical. For him, these social action are classified as – means end rational action, value rational action and effectual or tradition actions, these are also the “ideal types”.
When an epistemology is based on the positivism philosophy, the objectives and the nature of knowledge assumes that everything is based on causality when it comes to knowledge that exists. Secondly, an epistemology based on realism assumes that the nature of knowledge is based on the observable phenomenon (Saunders & Tosey, The layers of research design, 2013). Essentially, insufficient data provides inaccurate information, and some phenomenon may require proper inaccurate information were not collected effectively. Third, when an epistemology is based on the interpretivism philosophy the nature of knowledge is based on the social phenomenon and subjective meanings that change the meaning based on the situation. Finally, when an epistemology is based on pragmatism, the nature of knowledge is dependent on the nature of the questions that are asked and not the nature of the
Hermeneutical phenomenology was our topic as a group and this topic is a complex subject compared to the other social theories. As from what I have understood in this topic, hermeneutics is the art of understanding and the theory of interpretation. Hermeneutic phenomenological research is rested on the ground of subjective knowledge. The epistemology of this social theory is grounded on the belief that knowledge is made possible through subjective experience and insights. Furthermore, the ontology of this particular social theory is concerned with reality.
Sociology can be defined as the systematic study of social behaviour and human groups. It mainly focuses on the influence of social relationships on people’s attitudes and behaviour and on how societies are established and how the change overtime . A popular debate in the foundation of the discipline has been whether it should be treated as natural science or as a social science. The issue led to the division of sociologists. Three major theoretical perspectives can be identified at the foundation of sociology.
The positivist believe that science is only basis for real knowledge. Reason for conducting a positivism is determine laws which can be normalized in explaining the human behavior in the world. Positivist make use of observation and experiment in the study. • ONTOLOGY The Positivism research tradition adherent a realist ontology. Positivist argue human beings to discover the world which is made of quantifiable, perceptible and detectable by giving it sense and description.