We investigated phase behaviors of the mixtures of pyrene and model polymers with or without aromatic side groups. The pyrene and polymer mixtures showed two phase behaviors due to crystallization of pyrene. The melting points of pyrene crystals, which define the phase boundary of the mixtures, were conveniently identified using the DSC technique. Among the polymers employed in this study, poly(2-vinylpyridine) is most favorably miscible with pyrene and 1,4-polyisoprene is least favorable. Using the simple Flory-Huggins theory, we extracted the effective interaction parameters between pyrene and model polymers. The interaction parameters between pyrene and polymers with aromatic side groups are smaller than 0.5, and have favorable enthalphic
Absorption Absorption of chlorpyrifos varies with species to species. In humans, about 70% was absorbed after oral exposure of volunteers. For the metabolite, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), the minimal dermal absorption was 1-3%. It is to be noted that chlorpyrifos (cpf) is rapidly absorbed and transported to the brain through oral dosing . Distribution
The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to react methyl benzoate with nitric acid and identify the position of the substituted nitro group in the final product molecule. Methyl benzoate was added to cool concentrated sulfuric acid in order to amplify the directing effect of the nitro group addition, such that without the sulfuric acid the protonation would have happened at the carbon oxygen double bond. The mixing of concentrated nitric acid with concentrated sulfuric acid was to achieve Reaction 1 from Table 1, formation of the nitronium ion. Both of these reactions were kept at temperatures around 0°C, since they are exothermic reaction and presence of heat could lead to production of unnecessary dinitro by-products.
Murder and a Meal: An Organic Compounds Lab Problem: Based on the contents of the victim's stomach, where did he eat his final meal? Background Information: A macromolecule is a molecule that contains a large number of atoms, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates or lipids. Macromolecules are formed by a process known as polymerization in which large compounds are built by the joining of smaller one together. The smaller units are known as monomers and monomers together form polymers. Macromolecules are important to living things for example
Major unknown #202 was given out by the instructor, and the unknown bacterium was streaked out on a Trypticase Soy Agar tube and plate to inoculating the bacterium and incubating. After incubated and grown the morphology was observed and several Gram stains were performed to determinate if the bacterium were gram positive or negative, and the morphology of the bacterium. The Gram Stain of my major unknown #202 was determinate to be Gram negative bacilli, and was double checked by the Gram check slide. Also I noticed that my bacterium was a facultative anaerobe and according to my results of endospore test, my bacterium has not endospores. So according to the list of possible major unknowns provided by the instructor, I narrow my bacterium thru
In this experiment, different properties of stereoisomers, specifically enantiomers and diastereomers, were analyzed. R-Carvone and S-Carvone, which are enantiomers, were analyzed for opposite plane polarization and different odor. An isomerization was performed on dimethyl maleate to convert it into dimethyl fumarate, a diastereomer. Isomers are compounds with the same empirical formula, but with different arrangements of the elements.
1 • Copper (i) Chloride and Copper (ii) Chloride have same color Blue/Green. It is because both contains Chloride and that’s might be the reason of having same color. • Potassium Chloride and Potassium Carbonate have same color Baby pink. It is because both contains Potassium in it and that’s might the reason of having same color. • Strontium Nitrate, Strontium Chloride and lithium Chloride have same color Red.
What type of chemical reaction will a balloon receive when filled with an acid and base? Acids and bases are around us everywhere in various types of liquids. They are in the foods we eat and the things we use on a daily basis, for example liquid dishwashing soap. Acids are usually sour and bases are silky, giving it a bitter taste. Water can act like both, depending on the situation.
Properties of Ionic and Covalent Substances Lab Report Introduction The purpose of this lab was to determine which of the following substances: wax, sugar, and salt, are an ionic compound and which are a covalent compound. In order to accurately digest the experiments results, research of definitions of each relating led to the following information: ionic compounds are positive and negatively charged ions that experience attraction to each other and pull together in a cluster of ionic bonds; they are the strongest compound, are separated in high temperatures, and can be separated by polar water molecules. A covalent compound forms when two or more nonmetal atoms share valence electrons; covalent compounds are also
The lab started off by measuring critical materials for the lab: the mass of an an empty 100 mL beaker, mass of beaker and copper chloride together(52.30 g), and the mass of three iron nails(2.73 g). The goal of this experiment is to determine the number of moles of copper and iron that would be produced in the reaction of iron and copper(II) chloride, the ratio of moles of iron to moles of copper, and the percent yield of copper produced. 2.00 grams of copper(II) chloride was added in the beaker to mix with 15 mL of distilled water. Then, three dry nails are placed in the copper(II) chloride solution for approximately 25 minutes. The three nails have to be scraped clean by sandpaper to make the surface of the nail shiny; if the nails are not clean, then some unknown substances might accidentally mix into the reaction and cause variations of the result.
Introduction: When we breathe, we extract oxygen from the air, and use that oxygen for metabolism, which is how we convert the food we eat into useable energy to do the things that we do. One of the by-products of metabolism is carbon dioxide; whenever we exhale, we are getting rid of the carbon dioxide that our bodies produce. The main purpose of breathing, therefore, is to provide our bodies with oxygen, and rid our bodies of carbon dioxide. We humans are terrestrial (land-dwelling) mammals, and as such, our lungs are designed to breathe gas. Therefore, the first problem we must overcome to explore the underwater realm is a means to provide breathing gas.
Introduction about pyridine ring. py ridine, any of a class of organic compounds of the aromatic heterocyclic series characterized by a six-membered ring structure composed of five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself, a compound with molecular formula C5H5N It is structurally related tobenzene, with one methine group (=CH−) replaced by a nitrogen atom. The pyridine ring occurs in many important compounds, including azines and the vitamins niacin and pyridoxal. Pyridine is used as a solvent and is added to ethyl alcohol to make it unfit for drinking.
Pyrene is a good luminescent probe as it can undergo fluorescence that has a long lifetime, 1/2 100 ns, and its fluorescence is highly dependent on the polarity of the solution it is in. Pyrene’s emission spectrum can provide information about the microenvironment it is in. The molecule is a rather large elongated pi-conjugated system, making it nucleophilic and impossible for it to have any affinity to a charged surface such as silica. Figure 1: Emission spectrum of small pyrene concentration in acetonitrile From the emission spectrum of pyrene in a specific solvent, there is a fixed ratio between the first and third intensity peaks.
Polar covalent bonds connect together amino acids in chains, making peptides. They can likewise be discovered holding together amines. Covalent mixes have low liquefying and breaking points. Huge number of carbon mixes is covalent mixes and include in various fields. They have low enthalpies of combination and vaporization.
The objective of the lab was to transform cooking oil into biodiesel. This was done in a reaction of fresh cooking oil, which is primarily composed of triglycerides, and methyl alcohol, and was catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. The reactants and products were both massed, so as to see how fully the chemical processes have been carried out. These values were compared with stoichiometrically calculated theoretical values in order to evaluate the reaction’s completeness. Biodiesel is chemically composed of fatty acid methyl esters.