Observations Step Observation Adding sulfuric acid into the alcohol and carboxylic acid solution Surface of the round bottom flask is warm Poring the ester solution in the bottle after reflux Dense gas can be seen Washing the ester with distilled water The ester layer is immiscible with distilled water.
Solvent used in the elution process would be the mobile phase and solvents of different polarity would have a significant impact on the separation due to the varying solubility of compounds in different solvents. Hexane, being the less polar solvent, interacts mainly with the less polar analytes but very slowly with polar analytes. Therefore using hexane at the start of the elution process allows the less polar compound to be eluted out first. After the complete collection of less polar analyte, the mobile phase was changed to the more polar hexane/ethyl acetate solvent, which has stronger interaction with the more polar component, allowing it to be eluted out faster. The change in solvents throughout the elution process would allow for an effective and efficient separation of the compounds β-carotene and chlorophyll in the crude extract of green leaves.
Materials and Apparatus The first station was station 7, where sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were mixed. The materials needed for this station were sodium bicarbonate, acetic acid, a clean test tube, a test tube rack, ruler, sink, test tube brush and a scoopula. Safety Precautions
Benzyne Formation and the Diels-Alder Reaction Preparation of 1,2,3,4 Tetraphenylnaphthalene Aubree Edwards Purpose: 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylnaphthalene is prepared by first producing benzyne via the unstable diazonium salt. Then tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and benzyne undergo a diels-alder reaction to create 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylnaphthalene. Reactions: Procedure: The reaction mixture was created. Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone (0.1197g, 0.3113 mmol) a black solid powder, anthranilic acid ( 0.0482g, 0.3516 mmol) a yellowish sand, and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (1.2 ml) was added to a 5-ml conical vial.
We investigated phase behaviors of the mixtures of pyrene and model polymers with or without aromatic side groups. The pyrene and polymer mixtures showed two phase behaviors due to crystallization of pyrene. The melting points of pyrene crystals, which define the phase boundary of the mixtures, were conveniently identified using the DSC technique. Among the polymers employed in this study, poly(2-vinylpyridine) is most favorably miscible with pyrene and 1,4-polyisoprene is least favorable. Using the simple Flory-Huggins theory, we extracted the effective interaction parameters between pyrene and model polymers.
Polyester is synthetic fiber which mainly derive organic chemical compound from coal, air, water and petroleum and have the ester linkage. According to How (2015), the chemical reaction between an acid and alcohol formed polyester where a combination of two or more molecules form large molecule whose the structure repeats throughout its length. Researched by Smith (n.d) mentioned that production of polyester is by the chemical reaction of ethylene glycol with either terephthalic acid or its methyl ester in the presence of antimony catalyst to produce initially the monomer and low molecular mass oligomers. i. Starting from the acid: Direct esterification reaction.
Introduction In recent years, there is an increasing demand of flavoured compounds in industry sectors, especially food and beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries 1–4. These compounds are generally short chain ethyl esters which are characterized by their strong fruity flavour and fragrance. Ethyl hexanoate is such a short chain acid ester which gives an apple-pineapple flavour 5,6. Most of the flavours are extracted from their natural source, but this process can take a long time and rigorous efforts eventually ending up with an inefficient yield.
It is a closed loop circuit consisting of manometer, flow meter, valves, pump, vibrator heater, reservoir, thermocouple and radiator. The manometer is used to gauge the pressure at the inlet and outlet of the radiator. 30% of the reservoir is filled with the base fluid. The total volume of the base fluid in the entire system is kept constant. The thermocouples used in the experimental setup are T type thermocouples.
then the rich miya is pulled by a pump to the heat exchanger then it goes to the stripper . the stripper is usually hot. When gases enters the stripper they went out cooled . as a result of combining the miya and 〖CO〗_2 in the cool conditions , they are separated in hot conditions. The separated miya is sent by a pump to the heat exchanger to be cooled then it is sent to the absorber for recycling .
• Mixing - Stirring is one of the key elements in a bioreactor system on which mass transfer and energy transfer depend on. The mixing principle in a single use bioreactor is limited to a movement which limits the use of the bags to low volume and simple applications such as the seed‑train expansion of
Thanks to the boiling chips, the heat is evenly distributed within the flask, which permits a more controlled boil and eliminates the possibility of the liquid in the flask bumping into the condenser. The tedious distillation process is rather simple: the beverage evaporates in the distillation flask and, having no where else to go, enters the condensing tube, where it cools down and is converted back into liquid form. From there on, this liquid flows into the final container, a graduated cylinder [preferably in an ice bath]. The extracted distillate is otherwise known as ethanol, a clear, colorless, flammable liquid, produced through the process of glucose fermentation and frequently used as an intoxicating agent in liquors.
Basically, this method involved making thin film around the round bottom flask. The active ingredient and surfactant were dissolved in organic solvent such as chloroform to get clear and homogenous mixture. The organic solvent was removed by rotary evaporation and forming dry thin film of dissolved components. The thin film was thoroughly
Again select the flask and select Distillation Head from the drop down menu. ➢ For the third time select the flask and choose Condenser from Distillation from the menu and for last time select the flask Distillation Take-off from the dropdown option. ➢ Select the 100 mL Graduated Cylinder from the Equipment option and put it underneath of distillation take-off.
14 vials were used for cotaining samples. When the distillation was proceeding at a moderate speed at about the wanted temperature, the receiver was replaced with a vial as the condensed vapour sample (V) and the thermometer was read. Half of the vial was filled with the sample. The stopper of the distillation flask was removed and using a dropper to collect the liquid.