By using dual fuel operation, the more emission from the vehicles may be reduced. DF engine gain high demand from the automobile industry since its environmental friendly. By using DF engine, it becomes attractive operating economic and greatly reduced emission. When the DF engine in the mode of operates, natural gas is introduced to the intake system. To clean exhaust from a diesel engine, DF engine may be a valid choice for the automotive industry in producing more clean vehicles with reducing more dangerous emission which are NOx and particulate matter (PM).
Here we will be using a normal DC/AC inverter and we will be filtering the output frequency by using a filter circuit. This filter circuit will then output a pure sine wave DC/AC inverted power. Either this is pure sine wave; we cannot directly connect this to the main grid because still this is not high frequency grid tie inverter. Therefore we came up with an idea of a changeover system and so it will switch the main grid and inverter as for the power consumptions. In the inverter design chapter it is clearly mentioned the function of this changeover unit.
The purpose of this experiment was to study the purification of an unknown solution through the process of recrystallization. Recrystallization is a process of the solid organic compound being purified, and impurities soluble at high temperature to form crystals. The identification of an unknown compound was determined through the process of recrystallization. The use of solvent determines the recrystallization process, so the selection of an appropriate solvent is vital for this process since the solubility of the crystals in the hot solvent, is dependent on decreased solubility when the solution is cooling. The solubility test helps in the determination of an appropriate solvent for a specific solute based on whether or not the solute dissolves
Thermoelectric coolers operate by the Peltier effect (which also goes by name thermoelectric effect). The device has two sides, and when DC current flows through the device, it brings heat from one side to the other, so that one side gets cooler while the other gets hotter. The "hot" side is attached to a heat sink so that it remains at ambient temperature, while the cool side goes below room temperature. In some applications, multiple coolers can be cascaded together for lower temperature. 2 | Page Chapter-1.1: INTRODUCTION Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of
Introduction Quenching is one of the most important heat treatment process to attain desirable properties, for example strength and hardness. Quenching means to rapidly cool a material. But this rapid cooling can cause some serious distortions in the material. In steels, the transformation phases and thermal gradients are the main causes of this distortion. It has become an industry objective to reduce this distortion caused by heat treatments.
When a heat pump is used for heating, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle used by an air conditioner or a refrigerator, but in the opposite direction - releasing heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment. In this use, heat pumps generally draw heat from the cooler external air or from the ground. In accordance with heat pump center in heating mode,
The overall volume of the reaction decreases as the reaction progresses. By Le Chatelier’s principle, a high pressure and low temperature push the reaction in the forward direction. But reducing the temperature reduces the kinetics of the reaction, thus an optimum temperature is required. The reactions are carried out at around 3000C and 50-100 atm. (Olah & Goeppert, 2006) Control of temperature is very important and over-heating of the catalyst needs to be avoided as catalysts gets poisoned and degrades at high temperature.
Name: Institution: Course: Instructor: Date of Submission: Absolute zero Abstract The purpose of this laboratory was to apply the ideal gas law and temperature and pressure measurements to extrapolate absolute zero value on a Celsius scale. This was done by recording Pressure and temperature measurement values for different n values. In addition, linear fit graphs of pressure versus temperature were plotted for the different n values. The absolute temperature value was then determined from the equation of the linear fit. The equipment used for this lab were: Vernier caliper, Rigid sphere, thermistor sensor, absolute pressure sensor, 4 buckets, water and ice.
It shows how improvements in component design can reduce corrosion. Metals are degraded by Oxidation, Erosion and stress corrosion. 1) Oxidation: Oxidation is defined as the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a particle, atom, or ion. Oxidation reactions are normally related with the formation of oxides from oxygen particles. In oxidation the oppositely charged ions are then involved to each other.
After 40 degrees, the temperature increase became harmful to the chemical reaction. The color scale at 40 was 9.58 and at 50 the scale was 8.12. This shows at what temperature the enzyme begins to denature. Cold temperatures slow chemical reactions. At 10 degrees, the reaction occurred slower and this can be shown by the data.