Quantitative research is a method to quantify data with a combination of deductive logic and empirical observations to define and identify what factors or variables in the population that influence an outcome. The data is collected by using structured data collection instruments such as content analysis, discourse analysis, questionnaires and surveys to produce a narrow-angle lens which is able to eliminate biasness. Quantitative research is an important research approach to test the hypotheses and statistical analysis is developed to support the hypotheses. (Park, 2012) It is often designs in closed-ended questions to gather and interpret the data from a large sample which will be the representative of the whole population. Qualitative research
For this research, Quantitative study was used as it involved deduction. Hypotheses was formulated; the dependent and independent variables were identified which assisted in measurements of objectives. Data was collected by using close-ended questionnaires. 5.1 Research paradigm According to the requirements of research question, it was decided that it would be appropriate to choose the positivism approach as the philosophical assumption and research paradigm for the study. Besides this, the quantitative approach was used during this research.
Daniel Riff introduced in his book the major definition and compiled their aspects into his own. He says: “Quantitative content analysis is the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationships involving those values using statistical methods, to describe the communication, draw inferences about its meaning, or infer from the communication
It examines phenomenon through the numerical representation of observations and statistical analysis. Quantitative research could also be about asking people for their opinions in a structured way in other to have hard facts and statistics to guide 3. RESEARCH PROCESS Research: is a method of describing, exploring, relating or establishing the fact of an existing concept, factors affecting the phenomena and the relationship among them. Process: collection of the activities carried out in the research is referred to as the process. Research process is an orderly and systematic process that requires more art than science through thought and patience.
Additionally, both quantitative and qualitative researchers use techniques to verify their data. Quantitative investigators incorporate numerous control procedures and random sampling techniques to maximize internal and external validity. Respectively, qualitative researchers use an array of methods for assessing the auditability or credibility of qualitative research (Tuli 2010; Lincoln & Guba 1985). Lastly, Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2005) also note how both type of inquirers attempt to explain complex relationships that exist in the social science
The correlations produced (e.g., between costs and benefits, gender, and access to services or benefits) may mask or ignore underlying causes or realities. The rational for choosing this study is that quantitative research methods and measures are usually universal, like formulas for finding mean, median and mode for a set of data. The concepts in quantitative research methods are usually expressed in the forms of variables. Author. (2012).
It is primarily concerned with drawing conclusions on the experiences of people as a large group, rather than individual responses and is best at examining general trends of data from these groups. Representativeness is a key element in quantitative research, in which the sample population is large and should truly represent the wider population from which the researcher has claimed to draw on (Newell, R. and Burnard, P. 2010: 65). This has brought about a widely-used sampling technique, called simple random sampling, whereby, each member of the target population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. This ensures a lower chance of bias of the sample population, towards any particular type of person, and therefore making it more statistically reliable. Quantitative research produces numerical data by using several data collection methods such as surveys, observations and tests, which can be used to determine cause-effect relationships, predictions of cause-effect relationships, epidemiological information and treatment comparison studies, with the help of different types of quantitative research techniques.
Developing models based on the population data are called population modeling (pop modeling), where sparse sampling would be sufficient to obtain required data for modeling. Using population PK models, population kinetics parameters (volume of distribution (V), clearance (CL) etc.) and variability, as well as individual PK parameters can be obtained. Inter individual variability can be tested by adding them to the model as ‘covariates’. To assess drug effect such as adverse effect, biomarkers, change tumor burden or any similar biological outcome the PK model will be modified including a PD measurements.
Validation of accuracy is very important to a study suchas this, so more studies should be performed and reviewed in the same way this articlewas done. The findings of the team seem to make sense in how a higher number oflicensed staff would result in a higher quality of care, so it should be an easy topic tofollow up on using national databases and informational documents. I like the