Some methods include the use of interviews, questionnaires, surveys, online research, and offline sources. This includes the utilization of books, articles, and studying previously done research. The best way to get information from the selected audience is through a survey. Surveys include a wide range of questions; answers depend and vary from individual to individual and/or experiments. Based on the information, data has to be put together in order to determine the relevance and usefulness of the information collected.
For example, conducting interviews with sample population to understand the core of the problem domain aids in formulating right questionnaires for collecting data at a larger scale. While the first part exemplifies a qualitative setting, the second part might deal with quantitative data. Hesse-Biber (2010, p. 16), while enumerating the advantages of mixed methods' research, indicates how triangulation of methods converges both methods to solve the same problem accurately. In fact, adding the qualitative dimension to the research problem provides better insight into the core issues and complements the ongoing or pre-conceived quantitative analysis. Research design follows the chosen research strategy closely and some authors often use the words quite interchangeably.
Particular points are focused in this approach instead of general points. Different methods are used in inductive approach for collecting data, which includes surveys, experiments, interviews, and observations. Under this approach, effective analysis of the primary data is provided which further helps in obtaining reliable and effective conclusions. This approach is used for qualitative studies because of which it is considered as appropriate for this considered study (Kuada, 2012). Research Design Various research designs are there that can be used by the researcher for analysing the collected data.
DATA ANALYSIS METHODS As for this current research work, the researcher opted for a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data approaches in an endeavor to manage different sets of facts and make them subject to multilevel of examinations and interpretations and attain what is called an outright picture of reality. According to Greene et al. (1989), these two approaches …are used to measure overlapping but also different facets of a phenomenon, yielding an enriched understanding by illustrating, clarifying, or elaborating on certain aspects Quoted in Dornyei (2007: 164) To put it differently, the incorporation of these two approaches in the context of a single study is widely acknowledged by research methodologists for having
First, using previous research as well as the instinct of the researcher, one use theory to predict relationships among or differences between selected variables. This variables selection process and the theoretical explanation of how they are related is referred to as isolating a particular research problem where the researcher then identify appropriate hypotheses to be tested completes the isolation process. Second, research design selection follows once the appropriate variables relevant to the applicable theory had been identified. As mentioned above, there are two general design options: experimental designs and survey designs in quantitative communication research. Experimental designs are typically best suited for making causal claims and describing differences between groups while survey designs are best suited for describing characteristics of groups and explaining relationships between variables (i.e., correlations).
A research methodology addresses the subjects of research design, sources of data, technique for collecting the data, and data analysis. This study will employ interpretivism and positivism as research paradigms. This is because both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for the interviews, questionnaires, and observation in gathering and analysing the data that were collected. According to Creswell (2014) quantitative and qualitative approaches are the two basic paradigms of research. Both these methods are essential to the research process but Connaway and Powell (2010:117) point out that they require some common and some different skills.
Aker, Kumar, Day, and Leone (2011:56) refer to research design as a basic guideline of how the research is supposed to be conducted. Research design is concerned with the reasons behind the research and helps the researcher address the research problem. According to Baker (2009:44), a research design is the plan that stipulates the procedure as well as the methods to be adopted in the collection as well as the analysis of information. Three categories of research design are identified by Baker (2009:44), which are descriptive, exploratory and explanatory designs. Baker (2009:45) highlights that exploratory studies are usually conducted with the main objective of obtaining all the background information available about the research topic.
It considers use of both primary and secondary data so that appropriate information is gathered for arriving on reliable conclusions. Within this research design, the raw data is used and summarised in accurate manner. In order to collect topic specific data, the design makes use of particular sample size. Descriptive research design is used in the study under consideration because it functions best with the studies that make use of both types of data that is primary and secondary. It also focuses on the use of statistical approach for analysing primary data and for obtaining reliable results (Y.k.singh,
4 Research Methodology 4.1 Research objectives/goals/questions Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis (Clifford Woody cited in Kothari, 2004) Kothari (2004) defines methodology as ‘a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically’ while Somekh and Lewin (2005) define methodology as both ‘the collection of methods or rules by which a particular piece of research is undertaken’ and the ‘principles, theories
This study will adopt a mixed methods approach using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Mixed methods research is more specific in that it includes the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, methods, methodologies, and/or paradigms in a research study or set of related studies. Qualitatively driven approaches/designs in which the research study is, at its core, a qualitative study with a quantitative data or method added to supplement and improve the qualitative study by providing an added value and deeper, wider, and fuller or more complex answers to research questions. Qualitative quality criteria are emphasized but high quality quantitative data also must be collected and analysed (Creswell, 2009). 3.1 Semi-Structured