The teacher incorporates techniques, such as using voice intonations for various characters in the story, thinking aloud, and using hand and facial gestures to captivate the learners’ attention. Readers follow along as the story progresses. Overall, storytelling presents learners with the opportunity to improve their vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. Repeated Reading Strategy Cunningham and Allington (2015) identify repeated reading as an effective way to foster reading fluency. It involves reading a text repeatedly until the learner reads without making errors.
Share (1999) convincingly describes how decoding skills are supported by vocabulary, syntactic and semantic understandings. Speece and Cooper (2002) report a connection between early semantic skills and reading comprehension in their study of the connection between oral language and early reading. Decoding is vital because it is the basis on which all other reading instruction builds. If children are unable to decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be restricted, and their reading comprehension will suffer. Explicit, systematic and multi-sensory phonics instruction produces effective decoding skills.
Literacy Literacy is a beneficial acquisition for developing knowledge, gaining information and understanding of how things are and why things happen. According to Dewey, language has always been a medium were culture is transmitted through. Therefore, Literacy is a crucial acquisition one must learn to be self-equipped for science field, technology field, and office field work and many more. Initially, the ability to speak and write is Literacy, not only that but to be able to understand and recognize words and comprehend grammatical knowledge. According to Tyner (1998, p. 61), literacy is the ability to interact with others in the form of speaking, reading, listening and writing.
Teaching assistant talks through the process step-by-step to show the children how things are done, for example, how to make, confirm or change predictions. Teaching assistant can model re-reading of the text if the meaning is unclear and can model working out a difficult word. Writing can be modelled by using the whiteboard. Teaching assistant can model how to use strategies to help reading and writing. Through the modelling process the children should get confident enough to talk, think, share and reflect; they should want to be let free to do their
The importance of feedback in writing will be further discussed in the next section. 2.2 The Importance of Feedback in Writing Writing is a skill that equips human with the communication they need to actively function in a society. The ability to write effectively represents a part of intellectual capabilities of learners. Writing generally consists of punctuation, spelling, structure, or grammar (Robert, 1961). According to Toni Parkinson stated that (2002:41-42) the aims of writing are: 1.
So, it means that for reading comprehension, it is not only about the ability to read the individual words and know the meaning, but it is about understanding the whole passage as well. Reading comprehension is known to be important because even though it is almost a complex thing as it requires our understanding, but it will be very beneficial especially to be used in peer teaching strategies. Pupils can discuss among themselves the ideas they got based on the passage they read. Besides that, Ylvisaker (2006) has also stated that reading comprehension is seemed to be important for pupils to learn as it has a very close connection with listening comprehension but still reading comprehension skill is much
Learning of the reading and writing the whole word and phrase should be done in a meaningful context, as children learn by memorizing the words. They would be able to read better when they could relate it to their experiences (Brockman, 1994).
Dictation is one technique of writing: listening, reading and writing skills combine to achieve write correctly. Development of the grammar, they should practice repetition of what they have already learned and practice new thing that is harder to master. And the development of writing, they should write to the changing pattern of incidents within the meaning of the event. For example, if events happen in the past, they must use past tense. If events happen in the present, they must use present tense.
For many children reading text aloud helps to develop their skills as active listeners. Listening how the teacher reads a text demonstrates a model for fluent reading and pronunciation of unfamiliar words. Read aloud also maintains each student’s participation and focusing on how the reading process works. Reading aloud allows students not only to understand the plot of the story, but also catch the meaning beyond the text. Reading aloud motivates students to read and provides many benefits in building vocabulary, learning the reading process in a meaningful context, modeling fluency, and simply practice how to think-aloud.
Prediction from pictures or words is one useful strategy, so I recommend to use because it will enhance students thinking. For example, she might ask students to predict what they are going to read in the text using the title and the illustration and then students read the text and check their predictions if they were correct or not. Book covers, photographs give learners the idea of what they are going to read, in fact their brain starts predicting what they are going to read (Harmmer, 2007). Skimming which means to read quickly is also a useful strategy because it helps students to get the gist of a text (Scrivener, 2005). I think my teacher should use this strategy before asking students to read because it helps students to get the main ideas about the text, it helps students to require information that they want and to get a general sense of a topic.