The dependent variable is the rate of decomposition of water which is measured by the volume of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in cm3 The independent variable is the voltage here as I increase it from 9-14 Room temperature was 24 rtp and I carried out the whole experiment in the same room. If the temperature increases the rate of electrolysis will increase. The concentration of the sulphuric acid which is 0.02 M. If I increase the concentration of sulfuric it would’ve been the decomposition of sulfuric acid not water because we just need some ions in the pure water so the ions can move to the electrodes. An increase in concentration will increase the rate of decomposition. The socket that was the power supply was plugged in was 220-240 volts and same socket was used throughout the whole experiment Time is one of the major factors the time that was used is 35 minutes and if I increase the time the rate of decomposition is going to increase which means a greater volume of oxygen and hydrogen.
The rate actually depends on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide raised to a power, called the "reaction order." Equation 5: Rate = k(H2O2)x • k = Rate constant, in 1/seconds (s) • (H2O2) = Concentration of hydrogen peroxide, in moles/liter • x = Order of the reaction for hydrogen peroxide, unit less The good news from Equation 5 is that the rate depends on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and you will know what the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is when the reaction starts. You will use the number of hydrogen peroxide drops as a measure of its concentration. *insert aim* Hence I’ve arrived at the following question: How does varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affect the rate of reaction? Research Question: How does varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affect the rate of reaction?
A spectrophotometer is used to read the absorbance value of the cations in a flame that emits a photon read by the machine. Different elements will emit different lengths of photons which in turn produces an absorbance value. The absorbance values are then plotted on a calibration graph to determine the unknown concentration. EDTA titrations require much less equipment since it is more of a chemical test. An indicator EBT is added to a known volume of your water sample and should turn blue.
One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)? What well did this reaction occur in? Describe how the observations for this reaction support your answer. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript70 Words A reaction I observed in number 1.) Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Morever, for measuring the density using hydrometer large sample volume is required. Conclusion In conclusion, almost our group reached main target. We used two different methods which were hydrometer and density bottle method in order to measure the density of water at different temperatures. We calculated the densities of water which were 995, 992.5, 991, 990 kg/m3 for the first part and 967 kg/m3 for the second part. Finally we compared these two methods in order to decide which method is more suitable.
They found that carbon dioxide needed to be activated to build hydroxybenzoic acids with alkali metal phenoxide. They came to this realization by coordinating the alkali metal with the carbon dioxide. This caused the formation of the MOPh-CO2 complex. As the carboxylation reaction proceeded, a direct carboxylation of the benzene ring with another molecule of carbon dioxide did not take place, instead, the CO2 moiety of the MOPh-CO2 complex performed an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring in the ortho and para positions. It was shown that the intramolecular conversion of the MOPh-CO2 complex was the most responsible for the products distribution of the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.
Experiment 8: Identification of metal ions and inorganic compounds in aqueous solution Introduction: Qualitative analysis is the identification a sample's component(s). Unlike a quantitative analysis, we are not concerned with the amount of a substance present in a sample but only with its identity. In this exercise we will focus on identifying the cations and anions that make up ionic compounds, both solid and in solution. Ideally there would be chemical tests that could be used to identify individual ions without interference by any other ions. Unfortunately, there are often complications.
How can Sodium Fluoride Ion solve the issue “cavity” In this essay, I will explore about how sodium fluoride ion can be addressed to one of the most common health issues in the world “cavity” by investigating the properties of sodium fluoride ion and how those properties of sodium fluoride ion are related to addressing this issue. Sodium Fluoride ion is an ionized combustion of non-metal atom Fluorine and alkaline metal sodium as you can notice from its name, and its scientific equation is NaF. In nature a singular fluorine cannot be easily found, according to “How does the fluoride in toothpaste prevent cavities? Is there any kind of 'natural' fluoride protection or is it only in artificial compounds?” by “SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN” “Fluorine, the 13th most abundant element in the earth's crust, is never encountered in its free
A Computer with pH electrode 14. One Magnetic stirrer with stir bar Safety Precautions to be observed while making the solutions: As the acids to be used in the experiments would be highly corrosive and acidic, adequate safety precautions need to be taken during the experiment. Gloves and protective goggles should be used during the entire duration of the experiment. Some of the ingredients such as Sodium Hydroxide is extremely caustic and may cause burns and corrosion to the hands. PREPARING THE SOLUTIONS: First the sodium hydroxide solution needs to be prepared for the experiment.
The topic of research is, “how fast does an Alka-Seltzer tablet make gas?”. In the experiment, the scientists will be measuring the chemical reaction rates that occur, when 1 Alka-Seltzer tablet is placed in a specific temperature of water. The independent variable during the experiment will be the temperature of the water (degrees Celsius). The dependent variable during the experiment will be, the rate in which gas is produced (in seconds). The constants of the experiment, will be the amount of water used and the Alka Selter compound.
- A hydrate is a salt that contains water as a part of its crystal structure. The hydrate used in this lab was Copper (ll) Sulfate Pentahydrate. To heat the hydrate in this lab a crucible is needed. A crucible is a heat resistant container used to heat things to high temperatures. In this lab a mole was used to determine the measurements of all substances.
However, once melted or dissolved in a polar solvent (such as water) they can easily conduct electricity. This is due to the ions being in a fixed position and being unable to move around freely when in a solid state. A solid ionic compound is a non-conductor of electricity but once melted or dissolved in water, the lattice is broken down and the ions can freely move around. Resulting in, electrical
The purpose of this experiment was to see which solute, Splenda, granulated sugar, or salt, would dissolve the fastest in distilled water. Solutes can only dissolve in solvents when they are polar. A polar bond is a covalent bond that has two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed (About Education.com). This causes it have a dipole or separation of electrical charges moment making it polar. For example, in a water molecule the electrons are not shared equally because the oxygen has more of a charge than the hydrogen bonds making the hydrogens pull towards the oxygen.