BASIC DEFINITIONS, VARIOUS STRESS MODELS AND EFFECTS OF STRESS
1. The phenomenon of stress has been analysed in this chapter in the followings sections: -
(a) Section 1: Basic Definitions.
(b) Section 2: Scientific Approaches (Stress Models) to Studying Stress.
(c) Section 3: Types of Stress.
(d) Section 4: Key Aspects of Stress.
2. Basic Definitions.
Stress. The word stress has been borrowed from Physics and Engineering where it has a precise meaning, A Force sufficient enough in magnitude to distort or deform when applied to a system. For our studies the apt definition of stress would be – ‘the rate of wear and tear of the body.’
(b) The Penguin Medical Encyclopaedia defines Stress as any influence, …show more content…
Fred Luthans, Oganisational Behaviour (New York, Mc Graw Hill, 1989), P. 200. 2. ibid P. 207 5
(d) Combat stress. The stresses and strains experienced by a combatant
during a battle. This is the complex and constantly changing result of all the stressors and stress processes inside the soldier as he performs the combat-related mission. At any given time in each soldier, stress is the result of the complex interaction of many mental and physical stressors.
(e) Stressors. The factors that cause stress are called stressors. A stressor is any event or situation, which requires a non-routine change in adaptation or behaviour. Often it is unfamiliar or creates conflict among motives within the individual. It may pose a challenge or a threat to the individual's well-being or self-esteem.
(f) Eustress. Stress can manifest itself in both a positive and a negative way. Stress is said to be positive when the situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something. Eustress is the term used to describe
positive stress. Eustress is often viewed as motivator since in its absence the individual lacks that ‘edge’ necessary for peak performance. This stress comes
because of the over-joy. Fortunately this type of stress is no longer …show more content…
Scientific Approaches to studying stress. The last few decades have seen the evolution of a scientific approach to study stress. Some of the important models are:-
(a) Simple Model of Stress.
(b) Frankenhaeuser’s Response Based Model.
(c) Layman’s Dictionary Model.
(d) Henry Selye’s General Adoption Syndrome (GAS) Model.
(e) Levi and Kagan’s Psycho Social Stimuli Model.
6. Whilst the first four approaches concentrated on the physiological responses of the body, the last is an improvement over them where in psychological responses have also been accounted for. All these Models are based on empirical evidences and hence can not be questioned on rationale alone. And are all related to one another, in fact each built up on the works of the others.
7. A Simple Model of Stress. The simple model of stress shown in fig 1 defines as ‘constraining’ force acting on a person who is trying to cope with this force, exerts or strains himself and feels fatigued or distressed.3
3. Tom Cox, Stress (London, The Mac Millan, press Ltd, 1979), P. 3 7
STRESS STRAIN OF
Normally, people would not think to associate spelling or anything to do with spelling as an interesting past time, but not these young Americans. Jeffrey Blitz has taken this subject and shown it from the point of Americans’, how spelling bees are all part of the bigger American Dream, and the hype they receive are all to the standard of nationwide sports games. Blitz, director of Spellbound, follows the journey of eight American middle schoolers as they train and compete in the National Spelling Bee. Throughout Spellbound, Blitz encourages viewers to adopt perspectives on ideas such as stress, the need for study and competitiveness, with techniques like sound effects, camera shot, written code, setting and technical editing that accompany them, making a lasting impact on the viewer. Stress.
Unit 2 Assignment: Diagnostic Writer’s Response Whether it is a little or a lot, everyone experiences stress at some point. Stress does not always have a negative effect, most of the time the effects can be positive. On the other hand stress is associated with the development of most major mental health problems such as depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and pathological aging (Marin, 2011). It has also been linked to all leading physical causes of death such as heart disease, cancer and stroke (Cohen, Janicki-Deverts, & Miller, 2007).
Stress is an internal response to external factors. Any event that causes us to react either physically, emotionally, or mentally is considered stress. Stress events may be pleasant, unpleasant, mild, or intense. The word stress comes from a Latin term meaning “strain, pressure, or force”. In general, EMS encounters
20th century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history, philosophers and scientists have been given various names to this period. Peter Drucker has called it as “The age of Discontinuity” John Galbraith has called it as “The age of future shock”. Stress has become the 21st century buzz word from the high prevailing corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants” nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress has become common part of modern life. Urbanization, industrialization and the increase of scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for raising stress.
When stress becomes so prevalent in the body, it exposes the body to dangers that could ultimately lead to serious health issues or even death. Stress is something everyone has experienced before, probably everyday of their lives. It can come from the smallest things or it can occur on a larger scale. The larger scale stress can cause multiple dangers to the body, like a stroke or heart attack. These issues could come out of nowhere or they could have been developing for a long time.
Robert S. Laufer and his collogue wrote an article called “War Stress and Trauma: The Vietnam Veteran Experience”. The article talked about how the Vietnam War impacted the soldiers. “In situations of traditional warfare, high combat exposure and high war stress were logically tied to the proximity of troops to the front line” (Laufer 66). What this quote is implying is that when soldiers are exposed to a war environment, they tend to get stress out really easily.
Cindy Liu Mrs. Puma English III Honors 17 January 2018 Annotated Bibliography: Stress or Anxiety Reduction/Management Block, Sandra. " De-Stress Your Life." Kiplinger 's Personal Finance, vol. 71, no. 2, Feb. 2017, p. 64. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com. Accessed 10 January 2018
The 2008 National Geographic documentary, Stress, Portrait of a Killer, explains stress in many different perspectives. The film discusses its history, who has the most of it, it's mental and physical damages to the body, and how we can reverse its effects. Few are aware of the lasting damages stress has on one’s body; this includes
Specific purpose: To inform my audience the physical, mental, and emotional effects of stress. Central Idea: Stress effects people physically, mentally, and emotionally. Introduction I. Imagine being so stressed that it affected you emotionally, physically, and mentally. II.
Stress and Child Development Stress is referred to as any uncomfortable emotional experience which is followed by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioral changes (Baum, 1990). Factors that cause stress, otherwise known as stressors, stem from problems found in life, work, etc. Stress is a response that is caused by a demand. There are those who believe that stress is introduced in adulthood, especially the younger generation that makes the decision to venture off on their own by leaving the comfort of home and the care of parents.
Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about how stress develops and its effects on the workplace. Tentative Thesis: Though the definition of stress is already well-known among our society, we remain ignorant towards how stress develops everywhere and influences the workplace. Introduction I. Attention
For instance, stress could lead to stress-induced gastrointestinal problems, irritable bowel syndrome, acidity, acid reflux, insomnia, depression, heart disease. Moreover, stress could push the victim toward high risk behaviour such as smoking, drinking, and substance abuse. Stress-related illness led to increase in absenteeism and attrition affecting the profitability of the organizations. (Kumar & Rooprai, 2009) Stress can be triggered by the pressures of everyday responsibilities at work and at home. Traumatic stress, brought on by war, disaster, or a violent attack, can keep your body’s stress levels elevated far longer than is necessary for survival.
Stress refers to a dynamic interaction between the individual and the environment. In this interaction, demands, limitations and opportunities related to work may be perceived as threatening to surpass the individual's resources and skills. Stress is any physical or psychological stimulus that disturbs the adaptive state and provoked a coping response The increasing interest in stress research is probably because we live in a world that includes many stressful circumstances and stress has been a global phenomenon. It has become an integral part of life and is said to be the price we all pay for the struggle to stay alive.
Stress involves interaction of the person and environment. To quote a definition: “Stress is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and / or behavioural deviations for organizational participants” (Luthans, 1998). Stress has generally been viewed as a set of neurological and physiological reactions that serves an adaptive function (Franken, 1994). Traditionally, stress research has been oriented toward studies involving the body's reaction to stress and the cognitive processes that influence the perception of stress. However, social perspectives of the stress response have noted that different people experiencing similar life conditions are not necessarily affected in the same manner (Pearlin, 1982).
3. Review of literature 3.1 Stress and its types: Stress is an essential mediator of human behaviour. Immediate physiological response to any type of stressor facilitates survival of the species at its maximum. Despite of normal homeostatic regulatory mechanism, the stress responses can become maladaptive. Chronic stress, for example immobilization, exposure to noise, irradiations, psychological stress can leads to a host of adverse health consequences, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, obesity, depression and early ageing (McEwen et al, 2004).