Fig. 3a Case Study

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The simulation model of the globe and a sport ball was made to identify the injury to the eye due to the ball impact via a dynamic FE simulation code, namely LS-DYNA. The components and structure of the modeling are indicated in Fig. 2. The stress in the cornea among the investigated sports was quantified and plotted in Fig. 3a. The results showed the highest amount of stress as 8.27 MPa in tennis whereas the lowest one was observed on the basketball with 613.40 kPa. The highest stress in the tennis ball might be related to the speed of the ball in this sport which causes a serious damage on the cornea. However, due to the wider area of the basketball it could not invoke a concentrated force on the cornea and, as a result, no serious damage was occurred. However, it brought about a higher amount of over pressure on the eye components which lead to a higher amount of stress and deformation in the other components of the eye. The amount of stress due to the football, futsal, and baseball as well as handball and volleyball impacts were found to be the same. This might be the result of …show more content…

7. For both the vitreous body (4.982 Pa) and ciliary body (38.08 kPa), basketball exhibits the highest amount of stress compared to the other sports. Other sports almost showed the same amount of stress which is lower than that of the elastic limit of these eye components. The composition of the vitreous body is similar to that of the cornea, yet the number of cells in the vitreous is smaller than the cornea. Thus, the stress in this pretty delicate material would bring about severe injury and then visual acuity impairment. The ciliary body is attached to the lens by connective tissue called the zonular fibers. Relaxation of the ciliary muscle also puts tension on these fibers and changes the shape of the lens in order to focus light on the retina

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