We have seen how the lexico-grammatical form of language is internally organised in general functional regions (i.e. the ideational, interpersonal and textual metafunctions). We looked at the ideational or conceptual meaning through the vocabulary and grammar of the texts. Just like the metafunctions of linguistic texts, visual texts also have metafunctional characteristics. By applying Halliday’s concept of metafunctions to other modes beside the linguistic, Kress and Van Luewen (1996) came up with a grammar for visual design where they assume that the visual mode draws upon the same semantic system as does language, and that everything said about the semiotic code of language could be said about the semiotic code of pictures.
Cohesive are relations between two or more elements in a text that are independent of the structure. A semantic relation of this kind may be set up either within a sentence with the consequence that when it crosses a sentence boundary it has the effect of making the two sentences cohere with one another. Based on Halliday and Hasan like all the components of the semantic system, cohesion is realised through grammar and vocabulary. Cohesion can be devide into grammatical and lexical cohesion. Grammatical cohesion includes refference, subtitution, ellipsis and conjunction.
The value of the notes he was preparing was of illumination of the value of scientific methodology. In “On Denoting” Russell put his theory of definitive “description as the preferred alternative to other two theories.” (p.23). The two theories are, Meinong’s theories of object according to which every description denotes an object. “Any sentence in which definite description occurs in subject position is a sentence about this object(p.22) . the other is o Frege’s theory of sense and references where some descriptions have both Frege’s sense.
VilashiniCooppan suggests that comparative literature is largely a result of transnationalism. Communication between two nations facilitates an interchange of “capital, goods, labour, persons, and information” (15). It is the entity called global consciousness, which has maintained harmony between diverse cultures. The striking presence of this harmony is observed in the 1989 English film adaptation of the Mahabharata by Peter Brook. The title of Brook’s The Mahabharata is translated as “The Great History of Mankind”.
Here, the Syntactic relations used to strict the semantic similarity between each pair. The maximum similarity of each row in the matrix calculated as the log of total grades summation. The words presented in pair manner which prevents to distinguish relations between each word with others in the text syntactical relations structure, which made the syntactical information and other syntactical text structures
In the first column are presented syntactic strategies. • The first one is LITERAL TRANSLATION when translation into target language (TL) is very close to source language (SL). • The second is LOAN, CALQUE when individual terms or syntagma are borrowed. TRANSPOSITION translation strategy is very clearly described by Venuti: “Transposition involves replacing one word or class with another without changing the meaning of the message.” (Venuti, 2000: 88) According to Catford • UNIT SHIFT is “syntactic translation technique or strategy; a change of unit from source to target (the units are sentence, clause, phrase, word, morpheme).” (Catford, 1965) • PHRASE STRUCTURE CHANGE produces changes at the level of the phrase and CLAUSES STRUCTURE CHANGE
3. Nida’s functional equivalence theory The notion of equivalence in translation is the fundamental question in both West Translation Theory and modern translation. According to the essence of translation, a famous American translation theorist Eugene A.Nida put forward a dynamic equivalence theory, which is the famous functional equivalence theory. Eugene A.Nida (1986) argued that translation is the reproduction of the source language and the most natural equivalence in the target language from the semantic to the stylistic. And Nida divided equivalence into form equivalence and dynamic equivalence.
At the beginning, the author puts emphasis on how native speakers of a language decide if a text is either a combination of unrelated sentences or a whole unified sentences based on hearing or reading it by the native speakers. The book ‘Cohesion in English’ show the differences that identify the two aspects of the text, as a unified whole, and collection of unrelated sentences. It is informed that there are empirical factors which are text characteristics, they should be found in order to save as basis in the text. In a grammatical unit, consistency is formed by a sentence supported by a clause to a group of clauses. A text is highly regarded as an exclusive semantic unit in the meaning related to a sentence or clause, however, it does not
184.108.40.206. Binding relations between the two objects Brass and Lasnik (1986) presented that the two objects of the ditransitive constructions in English show asymmetric behavior from a number of respects, especially the asymmetries related to c-command relations between the two internal arguments of the ditransitive verb. Moreover, the Larson (1988) is largely built his VP-shell analysis based on the results of the various tests suggested by Brass and